First Response and Emergency Care – Component 1 Revision Questions
Emergency Care and First Response
Q. You have been called to attend to an emergency situation at a noisy house party. The person you need to attend to in your capacity as a first responder is a responsive female who is slumped over on a sofa outside in the garden. The information you are getting from bystanders is disjointed and confusing. Briefly discuss why a <C>ABCDE approach is applied in the primary assessment of patients. Also briefly explain each of the elements of the assessment in the context of the female patient in this case. Ensure to include the airway stepwise approach in your explanation.
Q. You are in a scene in which you have to attend to four casualties. Classify each of the casualties using a triage sieve (MPTT-24 or NARU). Specify which triage sieve you have used.
Casualty 1: The casualty is mobile, alert, and shows no signs of catastrophic bleeding. The casualty’s airway is clear, has a pulse rate of 94 beats per minute and a breathing rate of 12 respirations per minute.
Casualty 2: The casualty is immobile and has catastrophic bleeding from an amputated hand. The patient is alert, has a clear airway with breathing rate of 18 respirations per minute and a pulse of 114 beats per minute.
Casualty 3: The patient is lying on the floor, confused, but is able to walk and has no sign of catastrophic bleeding.
Casualty 4: The casualty shows no sign of catastrophic bleeding from a cut arm and leg. The patient has noisy breathing (10 respirations per minute), is unconscious, and has a pulse of 110 beats per minute
Q. Draw the human heart and label the following parts: Aorta, Superior vena cava, right pulmonary artery, left ventricle, pulmonary valve, Descending aorta, aorta valve, right atrium, left pulmonary vein, intraventricular septum, and atrioventricular bundle branches.
Q. Briefly explain the heart’s electrical conduction system, its nervous control, and how conduction affects the cardiac cycle (500 words max).
Q. Define atheroma, arteriosclerosis, and myocardial infarction.
Q. Explain the connection of the three conditions (stated above) to the development of Coronary Artery Disease (CAD).Connection.
Q. Briefly explain how arrhythmias and heart failure affect heart function.
Q. What is an ECG? What does an ECG measure?
Q. You are presented with a diagram of a 3-lead electrocardiogram (ECG). Identify the following components: T wave, R wave, and P- wave.
Q. List the health and safety principles for medical gases:
Q. You have been called to manage a casualty who has collapsed in the workplace and has become unconscious. The casualty’s airway has become “noisy” and you are considering managing it. State at least four contraindications or cautions in relation to the use of a Supraglottic Airway Device (SAD) for airway management.
Q. For the management of each of these patients, state the medical gas to use, the method of administration or dosage, and caution(s) and contraindications for the use of the medical gas you have stated (where applicable):
- Patient 1: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, oxygen saturations of 72%, breathing difficulty
- Patient 2: Pregnant woman, experiencing regular contractions, pain score of 8
- Patient 3: Football injury, pain score of 10
- Patient 4: Cardiac arrest, oxygen saturations of 52%
- Patient 5: Traumatised patient, bleeding heavily, oxygen saturations of 95%