Copper and Lead Levels in Aberdeen Harbour

Copper Lead Aberdeen Harbour Sediments

Here is a preview of the paper on Copper Lead Aberdeen Harbour Sediments.

Copper and Lead Levels in Aberdeen Harbour

1.0 Introduction

Anthropogenic activities are recognized as a significant contributor to the build-up of heavy metals, such as lead and copper in urban areas and marine settings, posing health risks to people’s lives and the lives or marine organisms (Yan et al., 2018; Briffa et al., 2020). Exposure of humans or marine organisms to these pollutants can result illness, poor health, or even death (Briffa et al., 2020). Lead, a well-known poison for centuries, is a subject of global public health regulations and is linked to miscarriages, brain damage, kidney damage, cancers, and even death in humans (Tchounwou, et al. 2012; WHO, 2024). Although naturally present in soils at low concentrations, studies indicate a gradual increase in environmental lead concentrations due to human activities (WHO, 2024). Copper, essential for enzymatic activity at low concentrations, acts as an enzyme inhibitor at higher levels, causing diarrhoea, vomiting, and liver disease in humans (Tchounwou, et al. 2012; Ashish et al., 2013).

Harbours, due to shipping activities, often experience severe marine pollution (Onwuegbuchunam et al., 2017; Zhang, 2020; Shahzad, 2023), leading to a rapid decline in water and sediment quality, impacting fish and marine life significantly. Unlike some pollutants, heavy metals cannot undergo biodegradation and may accumulate in sediments to toxic levels over time (Tchounwou, et al. 2012). According to the Marine Management Organisation (2015), marine sediment concentrations below 50mg/kg (dry weight) for lead and below 40mg/kg for copper fall under Action Level 1 (AL1), indicating safe levels (Appendix 1).

Situated in Aberdeen City, Aberdeen Harbour, is recognized as one of the oldest and busiest ports in the United Kingdom (Ship Technology, 2018). Handling approximately 8,000 vessels annually, the harbour contributes over £1.5 billion to the national economy by managing nearly five million tonnes of cargo (Ship Technology, 2018). The cargo, including industrial chemicals, pesticides, oil, and liquefied gas, poses a potential risk of pollution. Additionally, other sources of heavy metals entering the harbour include construction, domestic, industrial, and agricultural activities, as well as chemicals and wastes. Continue Reading (Alternative 2)

Here are some words that can be used to describe the paper:

Aberdeen harbour baseline study example
Aberdeen harbour sediments study
Aberdeen Harbour Baseline Survey
Aberdeen Harbour Baseline Survey for Environmental Status
Copper and Lead Levels in Aberdeen Harbour Sediments
Copper Lead Aberdeen Harbour Sediments

Sample data

Copper and Lead Levels in Aberdeen Harbour Sediments











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Statistical Process Control Case Study


Present literature review on statistical process control highlighting the development of the concept from the time it was developed to-date. You have been provided with historic data relating to temperature of combined effluence discharged by company ABCD. The data provides temperatures recorded four times a day during the month of September 2022. The company’s effluent discharges are usually controlled within the 250C to 350C range. The company (a brewery) usually performs weekly maintenance on the balancing system, whose effect is to neutralise the pH of the effluent and in the process heats up the discharge. The maximum temperature allowed for the discharge is 400C. Using the data, visualise the performance of the company’s effluent control process. Ensure that you describe the analytical approach you have applied and include any graphs you have produced. Based on your analysis/visualisation, how well has the effluent control process performed? What priorities should the company adopt for quality improvements? – This is a statistical process control case study. 

Data Sample: 27.508, 33.19, 30.06, 30.01 … (120 data points in total).

Statistical Process Control Case Study

Statistical Process Control Case Study


Statistical process control (SPC) is the application of statistical methods to monitor, control, maintain, and improve the performance of a process (Jiju & Mehmet, 2003; Jamadar (2020). SPC is also a tool that applies time series plots, for checking whether products or processes confirm to their design requirements (Qiu, 2014). SPC, a brainchild of Dr. Walter Shewhart, was first developed in the 1920s as a tool for monitoring and controlling manufacturing processes (Best & Neuhauser, 2006). The tool’s versatility was recognized by Shewhart and Dr. Edwards Deming, who acknowledged that repeated measurements would exhibit some variation. Shewhart later realized that the tool had the potential for use in other types of processes in addition to manufacturing (Best & Neuhauser, 2006; Niavand & Tajeri, 2014). True to this finding, in contemporary times, SPC extends its application to diverse contexts such as management, health quality assurance and improvement, survey, among countless other settings (Jin et al., 2019; Qiu, 2019).

Common Cause Variation and Special Cause Variation

In statistical process control, common cause variation and special cause variation are crucial concepts (Montgomery, 2009; Qiu, 2014). Common cause variation refers to the observed variation that come into being as a result of random fluctuations, representing the natural variability or “background noise” inherent in a process (Montgomery, 2009). This variation is anticipated based on the underlying distribution, assuming variables remain constant with the passage of time. When common cause variation is present, the process is considered to be naturally stable and predictable, and the process is considered to be in “in statistical control” or simply, “in control” (Qiu, 2014). A stable process exhibits predictable variation described by a statistical distribution, such as normal, Poisson, geometric, or binomial distributions. In a process that follows the normal distribution, normally about 95% of future measurements are expected to fall within +/- 2 standard deviations of the mean. Furthermore, regardless of the statistical distribution, almost all measurements are expected to fall within +/- 3 standard deviations about the mean, when the process is in control (Benneyan et al., 2003; Goedhart & Woodall, 2022).

On the other hand, special cause variation represents observed variation beyond what can be attributed to chance alone. This kind of variation results from external factors or special causes, constituting unnatural variation due to circumstances, changes, or events that are not naturally part of the regular process (Carroll & Johnson, 2020). In contrast to traditional hypothesis testing, where special cause variation is analogous to statistically significant differences, SPC identifies changes graphically over time and often involves the collection of a (relatively) few samples (Benneyan et al., 2003; Montgomery, 2009). Continue reading



 Common Resources and Capabilities Virgin Companies

 Virgin companies – Strategy

Revision questions

1. What are the shared resources and capabilities shared by the separate Virgin companies? –   common resources and capabilities Virgin companies.
2. Which business(es) should Branson divest from? What criteria should he apply in  deciding the new diversification strategy to apply?
3. What changes do you recommend to the Virgin Group with respect to its  its organisational structure and management systems?


  • Introduction
  • Resources and capabilities
  • Virgin companies shared resources and capabilities
  • Divesting criteria and businesses to divest
  • New diversification strategy and decision criteria
  • Organisational structure change recommendations
  • Management systems change recommendations

Richard Branson and the Virgin Group Case Study


The Virgin Group was established by renowned entrepreneur, Richard Branson. The history of the group can be traced back to 1968 when Branson formed the Student magazine after dropping out of school. Over the years, The Virgin Group has grown to become a highly diversified organisation with operations in several industry segments and countries. The group so far operates in the UK, the United States, Australia, Russia, South Africa, and Canada among several others.  Some of the areas the group mainly focuses on are Telecoms and Media, Music and Entertainment, Financial Services, Travel and Leisure, and Health & Wellness (Virgin Group 2017).

The Group boasts of owning hundreds of companies directly or through its subsidiaries. It also boasts of having holding companies in seven main business categories. In addition, it has a stake in several companies, such stake acquired through the formation of joint ventures with other corporations.

Virgin Group has a strong asset base and its success has partly been attributed to the reputation and celebrity status of its founder, Richard Branson. Some of the Group’s notable assets include its fleets of airplanes, trains, and megastores. In addition to these, it has several resources including a strong brand name, a good reputation, talented human resources, and finances. In combination, these resources have helped the group develop capabilities and competencies in different areas.

One of the resources shared by the Virgin companies is the Virgin brand… Read more…

Recovery of Forest Soils Following Wildfire

Tedim and Leone (2020) define wildfire as any unplanned and uncontrolled fire started on shrubs or forest. National Geographic has defined the term as an uncontrolled fire that that burns in the wildland vegetation, often in rural areas. The term has also been defined by Belcher et al. (2021) as any non-structure fire other than prescribed fire that occurs in a wildland. Also called vegetation, bush, or forest fire, wildfire has been part and parcel of the earth’s history over the past 400 million years, and is thus not a new phenomenon (Belcher et al., 2021). A wildfire may ignite spontaneously as a result of natural causes such as a lightning strike or may be caused by human activities. Whatever their cause, they can greatly disturb forest soil and ecosystems especially given that fire can have a significant impact on the structural, physical, chemical, mineralogical, and biological properties of soil (Certini, 2005; Shrestha, 2009) through mechanisms such as vitalisation, erosion, oxidation, leaching, and ash transfer (Xiang et al., 2014). The recovery of soil after a forest fire is an issue of great importance to conservationists, environmentalists, governments and other players. This paper seeks to answer the question: can forest soils recover from wildfire? The paper begins by discussing the impact of fire severity on soil properties before focusing on the recovery of forest soils following a wildfire.

Impact of Fire Severity on Soil Properties

Several properties of forest soil can change as a result of exposure to a wild fire. Some of these properties include level of organic carbon, nutrients, water holding capacity, aggregate stability, and hydrophobicity (Agbeshie et al., 2022; DeBano, 1990; Santín & Doerr, 2016). The level of which these properties can be affected depend on the duration, frequency, timing, type, and intensity of fire (Certini 2005; Xiang et al., 2014). Most analysts agree that out of the three factors, fire intensity has the greatest influence on the properties of forest soil during or following a wildfire (Certini, 2005; Santín & Doerr, 2016). Recovery of forest soils following wildfire … Continue reading ...

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How to Sell Documents and Earn Money

Sell Documents and Earn Money Students and writers across the world are consistently searching for information that will help them study, revise, solve problems, or answer questions. Many of them are willing to pay for documents, such as study materials, if they believe they will benefit from the documents. This situation has created an opportunity for students, writers, and professionals in different fields or with different talents and skills to sell documents and earn money.

If you are a student, maintaining a good academic record can be difficult if you have side hustles or a part-time job. As a student, you definitely wish to earn some cash without spending so much time and effort working, at the expense of your studies and academic performance. You need a side hustle that can earn you some money without having to spend so much money on capital and so much effort and time in managing your side hustle. There is no doubt that few side-hustles meet these important requirements.

One of the few ways to make money as a student or writer that do not require a lot of time, effort, and capital is selling study materials. Study materials come in different forms: study notes, course notes, book summaries, questions and answers, essays, flashcards, and other study resources. Have you ever wondered how some of your fellow students make money without going to work? They are probably writing and selling study notes, essays, summaries, and other materials that they know other students will need. In short, they sell documents and earn money. It’s a secret side hustle that they probably do not want you to know about. Think about it, already you’re writing notes, essays, and other study materials for school, so why not share them with other students to help them and make money? Yes, you can sell your study notes or study documents and make some good cash.

Now that you have already learnt one of the ways to make money as a student you are probably asking yourself, where can I sell my study notes and what kind of documents can I sell? You can sell your and earn money through Freelansas. To sell documents through Freelansas is as easy as ABC. It’s as simple as creating a free vendor’s account, uploading your documents, and setting a price for the documents. Within a few seconds, you will have your personal store from where to upload and sell your study notes.

Now regarding what kind of documents you can sell, there is a whole list of study materials that you can sell to make money including study notes, book summaries, essays, flashcards, mind maps, case study samples, presentations, e-books and many more. You can sell your documents as single pieces or as a batch, it’s all up to you. Also, the price that you set to sell your documents is all up to you. To increase the chances of other students finding and buying your documents, we recommend that you promote them on your social media accounts and by word of mouth to your friends. You earn a commission every time your document is actually sold.

Sell Study Notes Online and Make Passive Income

sell study notesHave you ever wondered how you can make money as a student or thought about real ways to make money from home for free? Have you wondered whether there is a way how to make money online for beginners? In this article, I will show you one good way how to earn money online for students and writers.

Many students and young writers wish to make some money without much effort and without sacrificing their precious study time. A lot of students aren’t aware that they can make passive income by selling study notes online. Yes, while it sounds unreal, you can actually make some quick and easy cash by selling study notes online. If you are in doubt, consider these questions: Have you ever needed essay samples or examples to give you an idea on what to write on or how to answer a question? Have you ever needed sample questions and answers to help with your revision? Have you ever wondered why someone has not yet posted some information online that could help you answer some difficult or challenging question? Have you ever been in a situation where your time is so constrained that you wish someone had written notes, summaries, essays, flashcards, or model answers that you could even pay for to access? You probably have answered “yes” to one or more of these questions, just like countless other students and writers. As you can see, many people are searching and are willing to pay for information than can help them gain new knowledge and skills or that can help them answer some question.

Do you now realize that your study notes, study guides, flash cards, summaries, essays, and revision notes, and other study materials are worth money? As a student, you almost have no reason to complain and whine about having no cash; you can spend a little time writing good notes, answering questions, or writing book or course summaries that others may find useful and sell them for cash.

Selling study notes is a side hustle idea for students that many people do not know of. Knowing this side-hustle idea at this time places you on a path that you can follow to make money as a student or writer. Whether you are in college or at home, you can make study notes, guides, and other study materials that other people can find valuable and worth buying. Unlike many other side hustles, you don’t need any capital to earn money by selling study materials online; all you need to do is make good notes or write good content from your lectures or through research. You also don’t need an office to make money through this side hustle; it is one of the few real ways to make money from home for free. In addition to making passive income, you help other people in need of information when you sell notes online.

You can sell study notes for a class you’re currently attending and thus make money writing. You can also sell notes relating to a class you previously attended. Additionally, you can produce a sell-able document by simply researching on a subject or topic that you feel will be of interest to other people (but that is not necessarily related to a class or course you have attended).

Now that you know you can sell study notes, perhaps you are wondering how or where you can sell them. You can approach junior students to purchase your study notes or market them through social media, which requires a lot of effort and time. Better still, you can sell and share your study notes to other students and writers through our online platform and make money. It only takes a few easy steps for you to be able to sell your study notes or study material online on Freelansas. First, you need to sign up for a free vendor’s account. After creating an account, you need to upload your study notes, summaries, guides, or other study materials and set a price for your material. Every time your study note, summary, flashcards, or other study material is actually sold, you get a generous commission. Whenever someone purchases your document, the money you have earned is directly credited to your account.

In summary, selling study notes online can be a quick and easy way to earn money. For students, it is one good side hustle idea for students and a way to make passive income. Upload your first study notes or study materials on Freelansas and start making money today. It only takes a few seconds to be on your way to earning from your study materials.

First Response and Emergency Care – Component 1

First Response and Emergency Care – Component 1 Revision Questions

Emergency Care and First Response

First Response and Emergency Care -  Component 1

Q. You have been called to attend to an emergency situation at a noisy house party. The person you need to attend to in your capacity as a first responder is a responsive female who is slumped over on a sofa outside in the garden. The information you are getting from bystanders is disjointed and confusing. Briefly discuss why a <C>ABCDE approach is applied in the primary assessment of patients. Also briefly explain each of the elements of the assessment in the context of the female patient in this case. Ensure to include the airway stepwise approach in your explanation.

Q. You are in a scene in which you have to attend to four casualties. Classify each of the casualties using a triage sieve (MPTT-24 or NARU). Specify which triage sieve you have used.

Casualty 1: The casualty is mobile, alert, and shows no signs of catastrophic bleeding. The casualty’s airway is clear, has a pulse rate of 94 beats per minute and a breathing rate of 12 respirations per minute.

Casualty 2: The casualty is immobile and has catastrophic bleeding from an amputated hand. The patient is alert, has a clear airway with breathing rate of 18 respirations per minute and a pulse of 114 beats per minute.

Casualty 3: The patient is lying on the floor, confused, but is able to walk and has no sign of catastrophic bleeding.

Casualty 4: The casualty shows no sign of catastrophic bleeding from a cut arm and leg. The patient has noisy breathing (10 respirations per minute), is unconscious, and has a pulse of 110 beats per minute

Q. Draw the human heart and label the following parts: Aorta, Superior vena cava, right pulmonary artery, left ventricle, pulmonary valve, Descending aorta, aorta valve, right atrium, left pulmonary vein, intraventricular septum, and atrioventricular bundle branches. 

Q. Briefly explain the heart’s electrical conduction system, its nervous control, and how conduction affects the cardiac cycle (500 words max).

Q. Define atheroma, arteriosclerosis, and myocardial infarction.

Q. Explain the connection of the three conditions (stated above) to the development of Coronary Artery Disease (CAD).Connection.

Q. Briefly explain how arrhythmias and heart failure affect heart function.

Q. What is an ECG? What does an ECG measure?

Q. You are presented with a diagram of a 3-lead electrocardiogram (ECG). Identify the following components: T wave, R wave, and P- wave.

Q. List the health and safety principles for medical gases:

Q. You have been called to manage a casualty who has collapsed in the workplace and has become unconscious. The casualty’s airway has become “noisy” and you are considering managing it. State at least four contraindications or cautions in relation to the use of a Supraglottic Airway Device (SAD) for airway management.

Q. For the management of each of these patients, state the medical gas to use, the method of administration or dosage, and caution(s) and contraindications for the use of the medical gas you have stated (where applicable):

  • Patient 1: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, oxygen saturations of 72%, breathing difficulty
  • Patient 2: Pregnant woman, experiencing regular contractions, pain score of 8
  • Patient 3: Football injury, pain score of 10
  • Patient 4: Cardiac arrest, oxygen saturations of 52%
  • Patient 5: Traumatised patient, bleeding heavily, oxygen saturations of 95%

Find attempted solutions to these questions here.

First Response and Emergency Care Component 2

First Response and Emergency Care Component 2 – Revision Notes/Questions

Q. Briefly explain the functions of the following components of the respiratory system: lung, diaphragm, intercostal muscles, parietal pleura, visceral pleura, and pleural cavity. 

Q. Explain the ‘cycle of breathing’

Q. Define “elasticity” and explain the effects it has on the lungs when reduced.

Q. Define “compliance” and explain the effects it has on the lungs when reduced.

Q. Define “airway resistance” and explain the effects it has on the lungs when reduced.

Q. A man has been hit by a car and you have been called to attend to him. He seems to be unconscious. His breathing is fast and shallow and he has a weak radial pulse. Your inspection of the casualty reveals that the left side of his chest is not rising and falling equally. There is no sign of catastrophic haemorrhage, his circulation is compromised, and there is a snoring sound emanating from his airway. Suggest a treatment plan for the casualty that includes scene consideration and additional resources, assessment and management of the patient, and his transport to definitive care.

Q. Label the bones on the diagram:

First Response and Emergency Care

Q. What are the functions of bone?

Q. What are the functions of muscle?

Q. What are the functions of tendons?

Q. What are the functions of ligaments?

Q. What are the functions of joints?


Q. What are the two main components of the central nervous system (CNS)?

Q. What are the functions of the Central Nervous System (CNS)?

Q. What are the functions of the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)?

Q. Define sexual assault.

Q. A patient whose has experienced sexual assault may experience different signs, symptoms and issues. Name some of the signs, symptoms, and issues, categorising them as either physiological or psychological.

Q. You have been called to attend to a female patient who seems to have been sexually assaulted. Briefly discuss the considerations needed to care for the patient. In your discussion, ensure to touch on the following issues: the assessment of time critical injuries, forensic considerations, approach towards the patient, communications with the patient, patient’s wishes with regard to contacting the police, and care pathways (Sexual Assault Referral Centre).

Q. What are the roles of the following crew members when attending to a major incident: attendant, driver, first crew on scene, and first responder on scene?

Q. What is triage (focus on treatment of patients, recording of findings, and special considerations for children)?

Q. Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear and Explosive (CBRNE) incidents can have several effects. For each of the elements of CBRNE, state the routes of entry and the possible effects that should be considered.

Q. You have been called to attend to a situation in a public area that is heavily populated. A member of the public tells you that there is a rucksack that has been left unattended for an hour or so. Provide a summary of how you will initially deal with the package and how you will act when the situation is considered a terrorist incident. State what “METHANE” stands for and provide details that you would include in your “METHANE” report.

Q. Briefly describe how you would manage a patient with traumatic chest injuries with a focus on open chest wound, pneumothorax, tension pneumothorax, haemothorax, and flail chest.

Q. An explosion has occurred in an event or ceremony in which roughly 2,600 people are in attendance. As a result of the explosion that has occurred in the refreshment zone, the Senior Officer on scene has declared the situation to be a major incident. What is a major incident and what are its four stages?

Find attempted solutions to these First Response and Emergency Care – Component 2 revision questions here

The Role of Cost Information in the Pricing Decision

Pricing Decisions: The Role of Cost Information In the Pricing Decision


The Role of Cost Information in the Pricing DecisionYou are working in the management accounting department of ABC which manufactures a range of consumer electronics products. The current range comprises 50 different products and the company launches around 10 new products every year.

Your manager has asked you to write a paper which addresses issues relating to pricing decisions for all the company’s products, with a particular focus on the prices set for new products.

The current approach used by the company is a cost based approach by which a predetermined percentage is added to the estimated full cost of the product. However the directors of the company have recently questioned this approach.

You are required to discuss the following in your paper:

  • The role of cost information in the pricing decision.
  • The advantages and limitations of the company’s current approach.
  • A range of alternative strategies for pricing products which could be adopted by the company, including a discussion of the circumstances for which the different strategies would be appropriate.

Discussions have been taking place within the company concerning the pricing of one of the products to be launched within the next three months. The current planned selling price is £60 per unit and at this price it is expected that 5,000 units will be sold over the next year. However the marketing director has suggested that the sales quantity and profits from this product could be increased by reducing the unit selling price. The production director disagrees and believes that the selling price would have to be increased to improve the level of the profit.

You are required to:

  • Analyse the relationship between selling price and the level of profit for this product based on the information provided in this briefing.
  • Within your paper, present your analysis in an appropriate format. This analysis should include an appropriate chart or charts as an integral part of your paper.
  • Provide a full commentary on your analysis. This discussion should include the assumptions in and the limitations of your approach, a discussion of the views of the two directors related to the conclusions of your analysis and an assessment of the relevance to the organisation’s pricing decisions in the light of your answer to part a).

Note: you should use a spreadsheet for the calculations which underpin the analysis presented in the paper. Your spreadsheet must be submitted to support your paper.

Additional information:

The company estimates product costs based on apportionment of overheads to products using labour hours. Prices set are based on full cost plus a 25% profit mark-up.

The following information relates to this product:

  • The manufacture of each unit of the product requires materials costing £24 and 30 minutes of direct labour at a rate of £25 per hour.
  • The variable overhead costs per unit are £5.50 per unit.
  • Fixed costs for the year to be apportioned to this product are expected to be:
  • Production costs: £24,000
  • Administration and management costs: £5,000
  • Selling costs: £1,000
  • Some market research has recently been carried out to try and determine the effect on the level of sales demand if changes were made to the selling price of the product. This market research has suggested that reducing the selling price to £57 would increase the sales volume to 5,250 units for the year whereas increasing the selling price to £63 would result in a fall in sales to 4,750 units during the same period.

Assessment criteria
(10%)  Discussion of the importance of cost information for pricing
(10%)  Discussion of the advantages and limitations of the company’s current approach.
(25%)  Review of alternative strategies for pricing products.
(10%)  Analysis of scenario
(25%)  Commentary on spreadsheet analysis and presentation of results.      
(10%)  Effective communication and appropriate style of presentation.
(10%)  Use and presentation of academic research to support arguments.

Pricing Decisions

The role of cost information in the pricing decision

Cost is one of the factors that affect pricing decisions, hence cost information is an important factor in coming up with pricing decisions (University of Minnesota, 2015). Costs can influence prices through its effect on supply. In this regard, a company will be willing to supply more products the more the cost is lower relative to the price. It is often the case that as the firm increases supply of a product, the cost of producing an additional unit initially decreases. However, a point is reached where the cost of producing an additional unit begins to rise. The company will be willing to continue to supply its products for as long as the profit it makes from selling extra units exceeds the cost of producing them (the extra units). Another way that costs influence pricing is that all the costs incurred by the firm should be recouped through its product sales (Meehan et al., 2011; Smith, 2011). This means that the higher the units of a product that a firm sells, the less each unit is required to contribute towards covering the fixed costs. This in turn implies that the firm can afford to set a lower price for its products if it applies a cost-based approach to pricing or can make higher profits if applies value-based pricing (Leijon, 2017). It is by understanding the cost of producing the products that companies can set product prices so that they (the prices) appeal to consumers and at the same time serve to maximize operating income (Tarjomefa, 2015). Continue reading

Central Traits Primacy Effect and Recency Effect

Assignment prompt:

  1. Explain the concepts of central traits, primacy effect and recency effect and their importance in the formation of attitudes.
  2. Define stereotyping and explain the possible cognitive and social functions of stereotyping.
  3. Outline theories of attitude formation and stereotyping.
  4. What is the difference between prejudice and discrimination and how is stereotyping involved in their development?
  5. Outline and critically evaluate two theories of the causes of prejudice and discrimination.

Explain the concepts of ‘central traits, primacy effect and recency effect’ and their importance in the formation of attitudes.

Based on the results of his study on personality, Gordon Allport grouped personality traits into three main categories; cardinal traits, central traits and secondary traits (Harvard University, 2021). Allport believed that traits make up the basic unit of the person’s personality and defined traits as the predisposition to respond and react in the same way to stimuli in the environment (Niwlikar, 2022). According to Allport’s theory of personality, cardinal traits are those traits that dominate an individual’s personality. These traits are at the top of the traits hierarchy and are the main controller of a person’s personality such that a person may be known for those traits only. As an example, Mahatma Gandhi is known for his honesty, Mother Theresa for altruism or kindness, and Adolf Hitler for being a ruthless dictator.

Secondary traits, which are at the base of Allport’s traits hierarchy, are present in all people and can influence behaviour. However, these traits are only expressed in certain situations or circumstances and are dependent upon immediate context (Niwlikar, 2022). On their part, central traits, which are in the middle of the hierarchy are general characteristics based on which personalities are formed. While they are not as dominating as the cardinal traits, they are the main characteristics that are used by people to describe other people.  All people have varying levels of central traits and these traits influence but do not determine a person’s behaviour.

According to Troyer (2011), the primacy effect is the tendency for individuals to recall information presented first (or at the beginning of a list) compared to information received earlier on (or in the middle of the list). On its part, the recency effect is the tendency by people to recall more clearly the information received most recently (Morrison et al., 2014). The primacy effect explains why people tend to be able to recall information that they received first. Experts believe that the information people receive first is given pre-eminence over that received subsequently. Continue reading


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