First Response and Emergency Care Component 2

First Response and Emergency Care Component 2 – Revision Notes/Questions

Q. Briefly explain the functions of the following components of the respiratory system: lung, diaphragm, intercostal muscles, parietal pleura, visceral pleura, and pleural cavity. 

Q. Explain the ‘cycle of breathing’

Q. Define “elasticity” and explain the effects it has on the lungs when reduced.

Q. Define “compliance” and explain the effects it has on the lungs when reduced.

Q. Define “airway resistance” and explain the effects it has on the lungs when reduced.

Q. A man has been hit by a car and you have been called to attend to him. He seems to be unconscious. His breathing is fast and shallow and he has a weak radial pulse. Your inspection of the casualty reveals that the left side of his chest is not rising and falling equally. There is no sign of catastrophic haemorrhage, his circulation is compromised, and there is a snoring sound emanating from his airway. Suggest a treatment plan for the casualty that includes scene consideration and additional resources, assessment and management of the patient, and his transport to definitive care.

Q. Label the bones on the diagram:

First Response and Emergency Care

Q. What are the functions of bone?

Q. What are the functions of muscle?

Q. What are the functions of tendons?

Q. What are the functions of ligaments?

Q. What are the functions of joints?


Q. What are the two main components of the central nervous system (CNS)?

Q. What are the functions of the Central Nervous System (CNS)?

Q. What are the functions of the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)?

Q. Define sexual assault.

Q. A patient whose has experienced sexual assault may experience different signs, symptoms and issues. Name some of the signs, symptoms, and issues, categorising them as either physiological or psychological.

Q. You have been called to attend to a female patient who seems to have been sexually assaulted. Briefly discuss the considerations needed to care for the patient. In your discussion, ensure to touch on the following issues: the assessment of time critical injuries, forensic considerations, approach towards the patient, communications with the patient, patient’s wishes with regard to contacting the police, and care pathways (Sexual Assault Referral Centre).

Q. What are the roles of the following crew members when attending to a major incident: attendant, driver, first crew on scene, and first responder on scene?

Q. What is triage (focus on treatment of patients, recording of findings, and special considerations for children)?

Q. Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear and Explosive (CBRNE) incidents can have several effects. For each of the elements of CBRNE, state the routes of entry and the possible effects that should be considered.

Q. You have been called to attend to a situation in a public area that is heavily populated. A member of the public tells you that there is a rucksack that has been left unattended for an hour or so. Provide a summary of how you will initially deal with the package and how you will act when the situation is considered a terrorist incident. State what “METHANE” stands for and provide details that you would include in your “METHANE” report.

Q. Briefly describe how you would manage a patient with traumatic chest injuries with a focus on open chest wound, pneumothorax, tension pneumothorax, haemothorax, and flail chest.

Q. An explosion has occurred in an event or ceremony in which roughly 2,600 people are in attendance. As a result of the explosion that has occurred in the refreshment zone, the Senior Officer on scene has declared the situation to be a major incident. What is a major incident and what are its four stages?

Find attempted solutions to these First Response and Emergency Care – Component 2 revision questions here

Nitrogen Balance Experiment Urine

Nitrogen Balance Experiment Using Simulated Urine Samples. Lab report results.
Attempted solutions for the following questions:
For this assay, you were asked to dilute your samples. Please explain in your own words why you think you were asked to do this.
Nitrogen Balance Experiment Urine

You were also asked to make your own standards from a stock solution of 1mg/ml. Please indicate the amounts of stock solution and water you added to make 10mls of each of your own standards.





0.75 mg/ml

1 mg/ml

Stock soln (ml)



Water (ml)



Calculate the average reading for each duplicate pair. You may find that one of the duplicate pair is not a good reading and may decide to leave that reading out. Discuss this with a demonstrator and outline in the tables below which sample you excluded and why.

Nitrogen Balance Experiment Urine

From the absorbance you measured from your standards, graph using a scatter plot.

Once you have done so, attempt to fit a straight line through the standards. Are there any values skewing the line? Is the trendline showing a good fit with your experimental data?

Now using the result for the trendline from MS excel, report the equation and the R2 value

Once you have made the graph, determine the concentrations of the samples in the following 2 ways.

Use the equation given on your graphs (y = mx + c) calculate the concentrations of the unknowns.

 ** At this point – remember that you diluted your samples 1:20, so this means to get the ‘correct’ concentration you will need to multiply the concentration from the graph x 20.


Sample A

Sample B

Sample C

Equation from graph


Equation from graph x 20


The samples you used for these assays came from a simulated 24 hour urine sample.

You have determined the concentration of urea in mg/ml. You will now need to convert that to total amount in the 24 hour urine, which was 2L.

So the total amount loss per day is amount calculated as x/ml  × 2000 (i.e. 2000ml per 2L 24h urine sample)


Sample A

Sample B

Sample C

Equation from graph (mg/ml)


Equation from graph x 20 (mg/ml)


Total amount loss per day (mg/day)


Total amount loss per day (g/day)


Once you have calculated the concentration of each sample, think about which sample may apply to which of the following subjects.

What do abnormal results mean?

Complete the table and give your reasons below:



24h urine vol

Subject weight kg

Which Sample?

Subject A

Healthy vegetarian subject consuming 35g dietary protein per day

2000 ml



Subject B

Obese subject undergoing therapeutic fast. 24 h urine sample from day 5 of fast

2000 ml



Subject C

Healthy football player, consuming 75 g protein per day

2000 ml



Explain your choices:

Find attempted solution…. 

Central Traits Primacy Effect and Recency Effect

Assignment prompt:

  1. Explain the concepts of central traits, primacy effect and recency effect and their importance in the formation of attitudes.
  2. Define stereotyping and explain the possible cognitive and social functions of stereotyping.
  3. Outline theories of attitude formation and stereotyping.
  4. What is the difference between prejudice and discrimination and how is stereotyping involved in their development?
  5. Outline and critically evaluate two theories of the causes of prejudice and discrimination.

Explain the concepts of ‘central traits, primacy effect and recency effect’ and their importance in the formation of attitudes.

Based on the results of his study on personality, Gordon Allport grouped personality traits into three main categories; cardinal traits, central traits and secondary traits (Harvard University, 2021). Allport believed that traits make up the basic unit of the person’s personality and defined traits as the predisposition to respond and react in the same way to stimuli in the environment (Niwlikar, 2022). According to Allport’s theory of personality, cardinal traits are those traits that dominate an individual’s personality. These traits are at the top of the traits hierarchy and are the main controller of a person’s personality such that a person may be known for those traits only. As an example, Mahatma Gandhi is known for his honesty, Mother Theresa for altruism or kindness, and Adolf Hitler for being a ruthless dictator.

Secondary traits, which are at the base of Allport’s traits hierarchy, are present in all people and can influence behaviour. However, these traits are only expressed in certain situations or circumstances and are dependent upon immediate context (Niwlikar, 2022). On their part, central traits, which are in the middle of the hierarchy are general characteristics based on which personalities are formed. While they are not as dominating as the cardinal traits, they are the main characteristics that are used by people to describe other people.  All people have varying levels of central traits and these traits influence but do not determine a person’s behaviour.

According to Troyer (2011), the primacy effect is the tendency for individuals to recall information presented first (or at the beginning of a list) compared to information received earlier on (or in the middle of the list). On its part, the recency effect is the tendency by people to recall more clearly the information received most recently (Morrison et al., 2014). The primacy effect explains why people tend to be able to recall information that they received first. Experts believe that the information people receive first is given pre-eminence over that received subsequently. Continue reading


Nationalism and the Modern State

Nationalism has been defined by Breuilly (2001) as political movements that seek or exercise state power and justify their actions based on nationalist arguments. It has also been defined by Hutchinson and Smith (1994) as an ideology based on the premise that a person’s commitment and loyalty to the nation state supersedes other personal or group interests. According to Breuilly (2001), three main assertions are ascribed to nationalism. The first claim is that a nation exists if it has a well-defined and distinctive personality. The second assumption is that the nation’s interests and values take precedence above those of the individual and organizations. The final assertion is that the nation must be as free as possible from the domination of other nations, governments, or entities.

Many scholars agree that there is a strong link between nationalism and the modern state (Conversi, 2012; Vincent 2010). The concept of “modern state” is fraught with dispute. Critics have condemned as insufficient the usual definition of the modern state as a human society that only claims the legal use of force inside a specified territory (Morris n.d.). Critics point out that if this definition is adopted holistically, then criminal organizations, the Roman civitas, and the Greek poleis would qualify as modern states, which is obviously absurd. Morris (n.d., p.200) defines a modern state as a political organization occupying a distinctively shaped region that asserts sovereignty over its domains and independence from other states. Scholars do not generally agree on whether the modern state is a product of nationalism or nationalism is a product of the modern state. This paper seeks to answer the question: Is nationalism a product of the modern state, or was the modern state produced by nationalism?

Many historians observe that the modern state emerged in Europe between the 15th and 18th centuries and extended to other regions of the world through colonialism and conquest (CQ Press 2015). Continue reading …

Challenges Facing Psychiatric, Toxicological Expertise

Prompt: Compare and contrast the challenges facing psychiatric & toxicological expertise in the nineteenth century “Adversarial Courtroom”, and the strategies they adopted to legitimate their knowledge. 

Challenges Facing Psychiatric Toxicological ExpertiseThe involvement of experts in courts to provide expert testimony is not a new practice. As far back as the Middle Ages, physicians, sea captains, and other experts have been called on to help or testify in English courts when the facts of the case were so complicated that the judge or jury did not have adequate knowledge to make a decision (Essig 2002). Before the 18th century, judges and juries actively took part in gathering and presenting evidence, and experts often served as official advisors to courts or juries. When the legal system underwent the adversarial revolution in the 18th century, however, this situation changed as judges and juries took on more passive and neutral roles in the collection and presentation of evidence. Consequently, litigants took active charge of gathering and presenting evidence in a structured forensic setting (Essig 2002). This change saw the role of experts in courts change from being (impartial) court advisors or members of the jury to being partisan witnesses (Eigen 1995; Watson, 2006). In their roles as partisan witnesses, the experts faced a myriad of challenges which they sought to overcome through different means. This paper seeks to compare and contrast the challenges facing psychiatric and toxicological expertise in the nineteenth century “Adversarial Courtroom”, and the strategies they adopted to legitimate their knowledge.

One of the challenges faced by toxicological expertise in the adversarial court in the 1800s was to do with the transfer of knowledge from the laboratory to the courtroom. In an adversarial system, it was the norm that all expert testimony would be met with contradictions that had the potential to damaged the image of the professions that the expert witnesses represented. On the witness stand, toxicologists, psychiatrists and indeed other experts presented evidence that (scientifically) contradicted those presented by the opposing side. The effect of this was that the public developed serious doubts about the integrity of the expert witnesses and the science they professed.  In some cases, the toxicologists, physicians, and psychiatrists, in their positions as expert witnesses, were accused of   being incompetent or corrupt. In response to these accusations, the expert witnesses often cited their credibility.

In Mary Fleming’s murder trial that took place in 1896, for example, her lawyers questioned the reputation of a German chemist by the name Walter Scheele (Essig 2002). continue reading …

Challenges Facing Psychiatric & Toxicological Expertise …

Harley Davidson Resources Capabilities

This article attempts to answer the following questions:

Q1. What are the resources and capabilities of Harley-Davidson? And how do they grant the firm competitive advantage to compete in the motorcycle industry? -Harley-Davidson Resources Capabilities
Q2/ How effectively Harley Davidson’s strategy is implemented and how the firm exploit its key strengths while protecting itself from its key weaknesses?
Q3. What threats to its continuing success does Harley Davidson face, and how should it respond to current & future challenges?

Case study source: Robert M. Grant.  Contemporary Strategy Analysis.

Harley Davidson’s Resources, Capabilities, Strategy and Threats

Resources have been defined as inputs into the production process (Grant, 1991) and as the productive assets owned by the firm (Grant, 2016). Based on these definitions, resources are basically what the firm has and that it can use to create value. Resources can be tangible, intangible, or human as noted by Grant (2016). Tangible resources are resources that can be touched, such as financial resources (like cash, securities, and borrowing capacity) and physical items (like land, plant, equipment and mineral reserves). Intangible resources are resources that cannot be touched and include such things as reputation (brand and relationships), position, technology (such as patents and copyrights) and culture. Human resources include skills or know-how and productive effort offered by the firm’s employees (Grant, 2016). It also includes motivation and capacity for communication. It is worth noting that the firm does not own its workers but it purchases their services through employment contracts. On their own, or in combination with other resources to form capabilities, resources can be sources of competitive advantage (Edwards, 2014).

An analysis of the internal environment of Harley-Davidson reveals that the firm has numerous resources. One of the resources the company has is its brand. In this regard, Harley-Davidson has a good reputation which has greatly contributed to its success in the market (Grant, 2016) … continue

According to Grant (2016), strategy is concerned with matching company’s resources and capabilities to the opportunities that emerge in the external environment. While in agreement with this notion, David (2011) notes that although a strategy can be good or effective, its implementation can be poor or ineffective. Harley-Davidson sought to achieve competitive advantage and higher sales by developing and implementing several strategies. One of Harley’s key strategies was that it sold a unique Harley-Davidson experience rather than motorcycles (Grant, 2016). … continue

Based on Porter’s five forces model, factors such as bargaining power of supplies, bargaining power of buyers, threat of substitutes, and the threat of new entrants can threaten the success and profitability of a business (Mille, et al. 2011; Porter, 2017). Harley faces the threat of new entrants such as witnessed in the entry of Excelsior, Polaris (Victory), and Indian into the motorcycles market. These and other new entrants have the potential to eat into Harley’s market share in different markets, thereby reducing the company’s sales and profitability. … continue

Harley Davidson Resources Capabilities

Harwell Fashion Product Life Cycle

Harwell group expresses their gratitude for the last advice you provided when they were venturing into the food and drinks business….

Harwell group case study: This paper discusses Harwell fashion business stage of the product life cycle and provides advice on next steps. The paper reviews a minimum of three strategic management models relevant to Harwell group based on the strategic choices available to the group. The paper provides advice on how consumers can become attached and remain loyal to ‘Zest’ over other energy drinks. The paper also provides recommendations on how Harwell group can change its system and manage the change management process effectively and without disrupting its current sales and marketing while effecting the changes. 

Harwell Group Business Strategy


Harwell Group is a company based in Scotland that so far has four businesses (sports, events, fitness, and fashion). Considering that it is experiencing reduced profits in these business areas and especially fashion, the business considered the option of entering the energy drinks market by offering a canned energy drink (Zest) as its product and sought advice on this matter. …

The Life cycle Stage of the Fashion Business

One of the businesses that Harwell Group engages in is fashion. To establish what is ailing the fashion industry, it is vital to consider the business and its products in light of product life cycle. Stark (2015) notes that the product life cycle is an essential concept in marketing. Product life cycle basically describes the stages that a product undergoes from the time it is first conceived to when it is eventually removed from the market. Not all products reach the final stage; while some rise and fall, others continue on the growth path. The product life cycle has four main stages … including introduction, growth, maturity, and decline as can be seen in figure 1. …

Strategic Choices for Harwell Group

With several brands and businesses, including fashion, in its portfolio, Harwell Group is probably faced with the challenge of how to allocate its limited resources for investment across its businesses. It may decide to close the unprofitable fashion business altogether or continue operating it. One model that can help the company decide whether or not to close the fashion business is the Boston … Commonly known as the Boston …, the model analyses a portfolio of products or businesses based on market share and market growth (Marci, 2017). Based on these two factors, the Boston … categorises products into one of four areas; stars, … and dogs (Marci, 2017), as can be seen in figure 2. continue reading


  • Executive Summary
  • Introduction
  • The Lifecycle Stage of the Fashion Business
  • Strategic Choices for Harwell Group
  • How to Attract Customer Loyalty to Zest
  • Management of Change Relating to the New IT System
  • Summary and Conclusion
  • References

Harwell Fashion Product Life Cycle

Harwell Energy Drink Business

Prompt: Harwell ltd. was established in 1974 in Scotland by Lewis and Rebecca Harwell. Their vision is to build a chain of companies within the Harwell group. Currently they have established four different companies which are up and running in various industries, they include: fashion, sports, events and fitness. Their most recent investment was in the IT industry but this eventually became unsuccessful. Lewis and Rebecca are now set to take on a new investment and the group’s net worth has recently been valued at £6.7 million. They plan to venture into the food and drinks industry particularly focusing on the production of canned energy drinks. Although this is a highly competitive sector of the food industry, they have both chosen this because of the increase in demand for energy drinks. Based on your knowledge of strategic position, Lewis and Rebecca have requested you carry out a thorough analysis on their new investment carefully considering the followings:

  1. The external business environment and how this may influence the new investment
  2. Competitive/market forces that would impact this business both positively and negatively
  3. What marketing/penetration strategies do you think can be implemented to boost the market share of this product, hence increasing sales and profit margins
  4. Critically analyse the marketing mix and suggest the most appropriate marketing mix for this product.

Hint: Your advice should be mainly based on key strategic theories and frameworks. You are allowed to make reasonable assumptions stating clear reasons for these if you need to do so –  Harwell energy drink business –Harwell Group Investment in Energy Drink Business (below).  

Harwell Group Investment in Energy Drink Business


Deciding on whether or not to venture into a particular business is an important strategic decision. Careful consideration guided by a thorough analysis of different factors should be done before making such a decision. An analysis of the internal and external business environments should be done to help decide whether or not it is worth venturing into the new business (Pal, 2000). The external business environment greatly affects the chances of a company succeeding in a given industry or market (Thilakasiri, 2018). It is also crucial for business owners and managers to evaluate the competitive forces, penetration strategies, and market mix to be applied by their business as these also significantly affect the chances of the business’ success. Against this background, Harwell Group, which is considering the option of venturing into the energy drinks business in the United Kingdom, should analyse the external business environment and competitive forces in relation to the energy drinks market before deciding on whether or not to invest in this business.

This paper analyses the external business environment in relation to the energy drinks market in the UK through a pestle analysis. A pestle analysis evaluates the political, economic, social, technological, legal, and environmental factors that make up the business environment (Kayumi, 2014). A pestle analysis has been chosen in this case, considering its capacity to assess the prevailing business environment and changes that can potentially affect it (Kayumi, 2014). In addition, the paper will analyse the competitive environment in relation to the energy drinks market. Based on the results of these analyses, recommendations will be made on whether Harwell Group should go ahead and invest in the energy drinks business, the most appropriate penetration strategy, and the best marketing mix to apply.

External Business Environment

Political Factors

Political factors touch on how and the extent to which government intervenes in the economy. Given that Harwell Group is based in Scotland, it is subject to the political environment of the United Kingdom. The UK has enjoyed political stability for a long time, is governed by the rule of law, and is based on democracy (Trading Economics, 2021). The political environment of the nation is such that doing legal business is encouraged. Recently, there have been growing calls for Scotland to break away from the UK, which could have far-reaching effects on the political, economic, social, and legal environments, and by extension, the business environment in Scotland and the rest of the UK (Milligan, 2021). From the outlook, there is little chance that such a change can occur within the next five years, which possibly implies the continued political stability of the UK in the next ten or so years. The UK government constantly monitors the inflation level and takes appropriate measures to see that the annual rate averages 2% (Bank of England, 2021).

Continue …

Alternative link.  

Executive Summary
External Business Environment
Political Factors
Legal Factors
Competitive/ Market Forces
Buyer Power
Supplier Power
Competitive Rivalry
Threat of Substitution
Threat of New Entry
Marketing/Penetration Strategies
Marketing Mix
Appendix 1: Prompt

Keywords: Harwell external business environment, Harwell Competitive forces, Harwell  market forces, Harwell Marketing Strategies, Harwell Penetration Strategies, Harwell Marketing Mix, Harwell Energy Drinks. 

Harwell Energy Drinks Business

Digital Marketing in Retail Industry Example – Zara

Digital Marketing in Retail Industry Example – Zara

Prompt: Choose one company from the retail industry and critically analyse how they use Digital Marketing to engage with their customers. Using appropriate theory recommend how they can improve their online engagement in the future. – Digital marketing in retail industry example – Zara Digital Marketing.

Digital Marketing Zara  Case Study/Report


Zara is an international fashion company that produces and markets different kinds of apparel. The company, whose headquarters is in Arteixo, Spain, was established in 1975. Today, Zara is known to be one of the world’s largest fashion and apparel retailers (Roll, 2019). The company has a presence in close to 96 countries in different parts of the world and owns close to 2,238 stores in these countries (Hanbury (2018). The company retails a wide variety of products including shoes, bags, perfumes, and clothes. Most of these products are made by different suppliers and are then transferred to the headquarters of Zara for branding (Hanbury, 2018). Given that it has customers spread across the globe, the company needs to find ways of interacting with its clients to understand their needs and views regarding its products and services. In this regard, the company exploits digital marketing to communicate with current and potential customers and to maintain a strong brand name. This report discusses how Zara applies digital marketing to engage with its current and potential customers.

Digital marketing in retail industry example






Customer Engagement

In today’s highly competitive business environment, the importance of customer engagement cannot be overstated. Retailers must hence change their approach to marketing from linear (involving one-way communication) to one that involves two-way mutual dialogue and the sharing of benefits between the organisation and the consumer (Fuxman et al., 2014; Karimova 2011). This implies that communication and engagement between the company and the consumer should flow freely and should be more non-linear. Such communication and engagement should be one-on-one, one-to-many, or both depending on the situation. Rihan (2017) notes that in the current world, consumers are more and more getting online to research products, find deals and promotions, and compare prices before making their purchasing decisions. Given this reality, it is only wise for firms to have an online presence and to engage in online marketing which, compared to traditional marketing, is often cheaper … 

Zara engages in several digital marketing activities as part of its market communication endeavours. The company owns several websites, which play an important role in giving it the continuous web presence that it needs while giving customers and consumers the opportunity to browse the products that the company has on offer (Appendix 1). Zara has… facebook pages … Twitter accounts … with each account having a huge following. Read more

Contents for this article:

  • Introduction
  • Customer Engagement
  • Berlo’s Model of Communication
  • Digital Marketing
  • Digital Marketing at Zara
  • Recommendations
  • References
  • Appendices



Companies Need for Relation-oriented Skills

Companies Need for Relation-oriented SkillsSolved: ‘Companies are becoming increasingly aware of the need for relation-oriented skills in their global endeavours. Female managers working for Western companies, for example, could generally be regarded as potentially effective managers in say, Asia because of their person-oriented leadership skills. The consideration women show others, as well as their ability to empathise, are features that are said to be held in high esteem in that part of the world. Why do you think that some multinationals nevertheless tend not to give serious consideration to female candidates for managerial positions in, for example, the Middle East?’ (Browaeys and Price 2015, p. 233). Critically discuss, referring to relevant research and supporting your answer with examples from international business.  Companies Aware of the Need for Relation-oriented Skills: Cross-cultural management. 

Why Some Multinationals Do Not to Give Serious Consideration to Female Candidates for Managerial Positions


Every business organisation seeks to grow or improve its performance and appreciate that without good leadership, this goal may not be achievable (Law 2015). Owing to this fact, companies are constantly looking out for people who seem to have leadership and management skills and who will hopefully propel the organisation in the right direction. High performing leaders are people who can develop and implement good strategies, ensure tasks are properly performed and done in a timely manner, and can establish and maintain relationships across the organisation. As noted by Law (2015), business leaders or managers can apply relationship-oriented leadership or task-oriented leadership to achieve desired organisational goals. In the contemporary business environment, relationship-oriented leadership is valued given its emphasis on creating relationships that last between the leader and other workers. In this regard, this kind of leadership helps avoid limitations commonly linked with authoritarian leadership such as poor employee motivation (Oni 2017). Relationship-oriented leadership has been closely linked to feminine qualities and as such is commonly preferred in positions in which a lot of cooperation, use of intuition, communication, and flexibility is demanded. There is no doubt that this kind of approach to leadership is practical and vital in business. Even so, some multinational organisations do not give serious consideration for having women, who naturally tend to apply relationship-oriented leadership, to occupy management positions in some countries. In this paper, the possible reasons for this situation is discussed based on Hofstede’s theory and more especially with a focus on the cultural dimensions of power distance, uncertainty avoidance, and masculinity versus femininity. The paper begins by discussing task-oriented and relationship-oriented leadership before discussing the main issue which is the reason for gender segregation in business management. The paper concludes with recommendations for businesses and women. Continue …

Alternative link


Open chat
Need help?
Hello, can we help you?