Copper and Lead Levels in Aberdeen Harbour

Copper Lead Aberdeen Harbour Sediments

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Copper and Lead Levels in Aberdeen Harbour

1.0 Introduction

Anthropogenic activities are recognized as a significant contributor to the build-up of heavy metals, such as lead and copper in urban areas and marine settings, posing health risks to people’s lives and the lives or marine organisms (Yan et al., 2018; Briffa et al., 2020). Exposure of humans or marine organisms to these pollutants can result illness, poor health, or even death (Briffa et al., 2020). Lead, a well-known poison for centuries, is a subject of global public health regulations and is linked to miscarriages, brain damage, kidney damage, cancers, and even death in humans (Tchounwou, et al. 2012; WHO, 2024). Although naturally present in soils at low concentrations, studies indicate a gradual increase in environmental lead concentrations due to human activities (WHO, 2024). Copper, essential for enzymatic activity at low concentrations, acts as an enzyme inhibitor at higher levels, causing diarrhoea, vomiting, and liver disease in humans (Tchounwou, et al. 2012; Ashish et al., 2013).

Harbours, due to shipping activities, often experience severe marine pollution (Onwuegbuchunam et al., 2017; Zhang, 2020; Shahzad, 2023), leading to a rapid decline in water and sediment quality, impacting fish and marine life significantly. Unlike some pollutants, heavy metals cannot undergo biodegradation and may accumulate in sediments to toxic levels over time (Tchounwou, et al. 2012). According to the Marine Management Organisation (2015), marine sediment concentrations below 50mg/kg (dry weight) for lead and below 40mg/kg for copper fall under Action Level 1 (AL1), indicating safe levels (Appendix 1).

Situated in Aberdeen City, Aberdeen Harbour, is recognized as one of the oldest and busiest ports in the United Kingdom (Ship Technology, 2018). Handling approximately 8,000 vessels annually, the harbour contributes over £1.5 billion to the national economy by managing nearly five million tonnes of cargo (Ship Technology, 2018). The cargo, including industrial chemicals, pesticides, oil, and liquefied gas, poses a potential risk of pollution. Additionally, other sources of heavy metals entering the harbour include construction, domestic, industrial, and agricultural activities, as well as chemicals and wastes. Continue Reading (Alternative 2)

Here are some words that can be used to describe the paper:

Aberdeen harbour baseline study example
Aberdeen harbour sediments study
Aberdeen Harbour Baseline Survey
Aberdeen Harbour Baseline Survey for Environmental Status
Copper and Lead Levels in Aberdeen Harbour Sediments
Copper Lead Aberdeen Harbour Sediments

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Copper and Lead Levels in Aberdeen Harbour Sediments











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Recovery of Forest Soils Following Wildfire

Tedim and Leone (2020) define wildfire as any unplanned and uncontrolled fire started on shrubs or forest. National Geographic has defined the term as an uncontrolled fire that that burns in the wildland vegetation, often in rural areas. The term has also been defined by Belcher et al. (2021) as any non-structure fire other than prescribed fire that occurs in a wildland. Also called vegetation, bush, or forest fire, wildfire has been part and parcel of the earth’s history over the past 400 million years, and is thus not a new phenomenon (Belcher et al., 2021). A wildfire may ignite spontaneously as a result of natural causes such as a lightning strike or may be caused by human activities. Whatever their cause, they can greatly disturb forest soil and ecosystems especially given that fire can have a significant impact on the structural, physical, chemical, mineralogical, and biological properties of soil (Certini, 2005; Shrestha, 2009) through mechanisms such as vitalisation, erosion, oxidation, leaching, and ash transfer (Xiang et al., 2014). The recovery of soil after a forest fire is an issue of great importance to conservationists, environmentalists, governments and other players. This paper seeks to answer the question: can forest soils recover from wildfire? The paper begins by discussing the impact of fire severity on soil properties before focusing on the recovery of forest soils following a wildfire.

Impact of Fire Severity on Soil Properties

Several properties of forest soil can change as a result of exposure to a wild fire. Some of these properties include level of organic carbon, nutrients, water holding capacity, aggregate stability, and hydrophobicity (Agbeshie et al., 2022; DeBano, 1990; Santín & Doerr, 2016). The level of which these properties can be affected depend on the duration, frequency, timing, type, and intensity of fire (Certini 2005; Xiang et al., 2014). Most analysts agree that out of the three factors, fire intensity has the greatest influence on the properties of forest soil during or following a wildfire (Certini, 2005; Santín & Doerr, 2016). Recovery of forest soils following wildfire … Continue reading ...

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First Response and Emergency Care Component 2

First Response and Emergency Care Component 2 – Revision Notes/Questions

Q. Briefly explain the functions of the following components of the respiratory system: lung, diaphragm, intercostal muscles, parietal pleura, visceral pleura, and pleural cavity. 

Q. Explain the ‘cycle of breathing’

Q. Define “elasticity” and explain the effects it has on the lungs when reduced.

Q. Define “compliance” and explain the effects it has on the lungs when reduced.

Q. Define “airway resistance” and explain the effects it has on the lungs when reduced.

Q. A man has been hit by a car and you have been called to attend to him. He seems to be unconscious. His breathing is fast and shallow and he has a weak radial pulse. Your inspection of the casualty reveals that the left side of his chest is not rising and falling equally. There is no sign of catastrophic haemorrhage, his circulation is compromised, and there is a snoring sound emanating from his airway. Suggest a treatment plan for the casualty that includes scene consideration and additional resources, assessment and management of the patient, and his transport to definitive care.

Q. Label the bones on the diagram:

First Response and Emergency Care

Q. What are the functions of bone?

Q. What are the functions of muscle?

Q. What are the functions of tendons?

Q. What are the functions of ligaments?

Q. What are the functions of joints?


Q. What are the two main components of the central nervous system (CNS)?

Q. What are the functions of the Central Nervous System (CNS)?

Q. What are the functions of the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)?

Q. Define sexual assault.

Q. A patient whose has experienced sexual assault may experience different signs, symptoms and issues. Name some of the signs, symptoms, and issues, categorising them as either physiological or psychological.

Q. You have been called to attend to a female patient who seems to have been sexually assaulted. Briefly discuss the considerations needed to care for the patient. In your discussion, ensure to touch on the following issues: the assessment of time critical injuries, forensic considerations, approach towards the patient, communications with the patient, patient’s wishes with regard to contacting the police, and care pathways (Sexual Assault Referral Centre).

Q. What are the roles of the following crew members when attending to a major incident: attendant, driver, first crew on scene, and first responder on scene?

Q. What is triage (focus on treatment of patients, recording of findings, and special considerations for children)?

Q. Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear and Explosive (CBRNE) incidents can have several effects. For each of the elements of CBRNE, state the routes of entry and the possible effects that should be considered.

Q. You have been called to attend to a situation in a public area that is heavily populated. A member of the public tells you that there is a rucksack that has been left unattended for an hour or so. Provide a summary of how you will initially deal with the package and how you will act when the situation is considered a terrorist incident. State what “METHANE” stands for and provide details that you would include in your “METHANE” report.

Q. Briefly describe how you would manage a patient with traumatic chest injuries with a focus on open chest wound, pneumothorax, tension pneumothorax, haemothorax, and flail chest.

Q. An explosion has occurred in an event or ceremony in which roughly 2,600 people are in attendance. As a result of the explosion that has occurred in the refreshment zone, the Senior Officer on scene has declared the situation to be a major incident. What is a major incident and what are its four stages?

Find attempted solutions to these First Response and Emergency Care – Component 2 revision questions here

The Role of Cost Information in the Pricing Decision

Pricing Decisions: The Role of Cost Information In the Pricing Decision


The Role of Cost Information in the Pricing DecisionYou are working in the management accounting department of ABC which manufactures a range of consumer electronics products. The current range comprises 50 different products and the company launches around 10 new products every year.

Your manager has asked you to write a paper which addresses issues relating to pricing decisions for all the company’s products, with a particular focus on the prices set for new products.

The current approach used by the company is a cost based approach by which a predetermined percentage is added to the estimated full cost of the product. However the directors of the company have recently questioned this approach.

You are required to discuss the following in your paper:

  • The role of cost information in the pricing decision.
  • The advantages and limitations of the company’s current approach.
  • A range of alternative strategies for pricing products which could be adopted by the company, including a discussion of the circumstances for which the different strategies would be appropriate.

Discussions have been taking place within the company concerning the pricing of one of the products to be launched within the next three months. The current planned selling price is £60 per unit and at this price it is expected that 5,000 units will be sold over the next year. However the marketing director has suggested that the sales quantity and profits from this product could be increased by reducing the unit selling price. The production director disagrees and believes that the selling price would have to be increased to improve the level of the profit.

You are required to:

  • Analyse the relationship between selling price and the level of profit for this product based on the information provided in this briefing.
  • Within your paper, present your analysis in an appropriate format. This analysis should include an appropriate chart or charts as an integral part of your paper.
  • Provide a full commentary on your analysis. This discussion should include the assumptions in and the limitations of your approach, a discussion of the views of the two directors related to the conclusions of your analysis and an assessment of the relevance to the organisation’s pricing decisions in the light of your answer to part a).

Note: you should use a spreadsheet for the calculations which underpin the analysis presented in the paper. Your spreadsheet must be submitted to support your paper.

Additional information:

The company estimates product costs based on apportionment of overheads to products using labour hours. Prices set are based on full cost plus a 25% profit mark-up.

The following information relates to this product:

  • The manufacture of each unit of the product requires materials costing £24 and 30 minutes of direct labour at a rate of £25 per hour.
  • The variable overhead costs per unit are £5.50 per unit.
  • Fixed costs for the year to be apportioned to this product are expected to be:
  • Production costs: £24,000
  • Administration and management costs: £5,000
  • Selling costs: £1,000
  • Some market research has recently been carried out to try and determine the effect on the level of sales demand if changes were made to the selling price of the product. This market research has suggested that reducing the selling price to £57 would increase the sales volume to 5,250 units for the year whereas increasing the selling price to £63 would result in a fall in sales to 4,750 units during the same period.

Assessment criteria
(10%)  Discussion of the importance of cost information for pricing
(10%)  Discussion of the advantages and limitations of the company’s current approach.
(25%)  Review of alternative strategies for pricing products.
(10%)  Analysis of scenario
(25%)  Commentary on spreadsheet analysis and presentation of results.      
(10%)  Effective communication and appropriate style of presentation.
(10%)  Use and presentation of academic research to support arguments.

Pricing Decisions

The role of cost information in the pricing decision

Cost is one of the factors that affect pricing decisions, hence cost information is an important factor in coming up with pricing decisions (University of Minnesota, 2015). Costs can influence prices through its effect on supply. In this regard, a company will be willing to supply more products the more the cost is lower relative to the price. It is often the case that as the firm increases supply of a product, the cost of producing an additional unit initially decreases. However, a point is reached where the cost of producing an additional unit begins to rise. The company will be willing to continue to supply its products for as long as the profit it makes from selling extra units exceeds the cost of producing them (the extra units). Another way that costs influence pricing is that all the costs incurred by the firm should be recouped through its product sales (Meehan et al., 2011; Smith, 2011). This means that the higher the units of a product that a firm sells, the less each unit is required to contribute towards covering the fixed costs. This in turn implies that the firm can afford to set a lower price for its products if it applies a cost-based approach to pricing or can make higher profits if applies value-based pricing (Leijon, 2017). It is by understanding the cost of producing the products that companies can set product prices so that they (the prices) appeal to consumers and at the same time serve to maximize operating income (Tarjomefa, 2015). Continue reading

Central Traits Primacy Effect and Recency Effect

Assignment prompt:

  1. Explain the concepts of central traits, primacy effect and recency effect and their importance in the formation of attitudes.
  2. Define stereotyping and explain the possible cognitive and social functions of stereotyping.
  3. Outline theories of attitude formation and stereotyping.
  4. What is the difference between prejudice and discrimination and how is stereotyping involved in their development?
  5. Outline and critically evaluate two theories of the causes of prejudice and discrimination.

Explain the concepts of ‘central traits, primacy effect and recency effect’ and their importance in the formation of attitudes.

Based on the results of his study on personality, Gordon Allport grouped personality traits into three main categories; cardinal traits, central traits and secondary traits (Harvard University, 2021). Allport believed that traits make up the basic unit of the person’s personality and defined traits as the predisposition to respond and react in the same way to stimuli in the environment (Niwlikar, 2022). According to Allport’s theory of personality, cardinal traits are those traits that dominate an individual’s personality. These traits are at the top of the traits hierarchy and are the main controller of a person’s personality such that a person may be known for those traits only. As an example, Mahatma Gandhi is known for his honesty, Mother Theresa for altruism or kindness, and Adolf Hitler for being a ruthless dictator.

Secondary traits, which are at the base of Allport’s traits hierarchy, are present in all people and can influence behaviour. However, these traits are only expressed in certain situations or circumstances and are dependent upon immediate context (Niwlikar, 2022). On their part, central traits, which are in the middle of the hierarchy are general characteristics based on which personalities are formed. While they are not as dominating as the cardinal traits, they are the main characteristics that are used by people to describe other people.  All people have varying levels of central traits and these traits influence but do not determine a person’s behaviour.

According to Troyer (2011), the primacy effect is the tendency for individuals to recall information presented first (or at the beginning of a list) compared to information received earlier on (or in the middle of the list). On its part, the recency effect is the tendency by people to recall more clearly the information received most recently (Morrison et al., 2014). The primacy effect explains why people tend to be able to recall information that they received first. Experts believe that the information people receive first is given pre-eminence over that received subsequently. Continue reading


Nationalism and the Modern State

Nationalism has been defined by Breuilly (2001) as political movements that seek or exercise state power and justify their actions based on nationalist arguments. It has also been defined by Hutchinson and Smith (1994) as an ideology based on the premise that a person’s commitment and loyalty to the nation state supersedes other personal or group interests. According to Breuilly (2001), three main assertions are ascribed to nationalism. The first claim is that a nation exists if it has a well-defined and distinctive personality. The second assumption is that the nation’s interests and values take precedence above those of the individual and organizations. The final assertion is that the nation must be as free as possible from the domination of other nations, governments, or entities.

Many scholars agree that there is a strong link between nationalism and the modern state (Conversi, 2012; Vincent 2010). The concept of “modern state” is fraught with dispute. Critics have condemned as insufficient the usual definition of the modern state as a human society that only claims the legal use of force inside a specified territory (Morris n.d.). Critics point out that if this definition is adopted holistically, then criminal organizations, the Roman civitas, and the Greek poleis would qualify as modern states, which is obviously absurd. Morris (n.d., p.200) defines a modern state as a political organization occupying a distinctively shaped region that asserts sovereignty over its domains and independence from other states. Scholars do not generally agree on whether the modern state is a product of nationalism or nationalism is a product of the modern state. This paper seeks to answer the question: Is nationalism a product of the modern state, or was the modern state produced by nationalism?

Many historians observe that the modern state emerged in Europe between the 15th and 18th centuries and extended to other regions of the world through colonialism and conquest (CQ Press 2015). Continue reading …

Challenges Facing Psychiatric, Toxicological Expertise

Prompt: Compare and contrast the challenges facing psychiatric & toxicological expertise in the nineteenth century “Adversarial Courtroom”, and the strategies they adopted to legitimate their knowledge. 

Challenges Facing Psychiatric Toxicological ExpertiseThe involvement of experts in courts to provide expert testimony is not a new practice. As far back as the Middle Ages, physicians, sea captains, and other experts have been called on to help or testify in English courts when the facts of the case were so complicated that the judge or jury did not have adequate knowledge to make a decision (Essig 2002). Before the 18th century, judges and juries actively took part in gathering and presenting evidence, and experts often served as official advisors to courts or juries. When the legal system underwent the adversarial revolution in the 18th century, however, this situation changed as judges and juries took on more passive and neutral roles in the collection and presentation of evidence. Consequently, litigants took active charge of gathering and presenting evidence in a structured forensic setting (Essig 2002). This change saw the role of experts in courts change from being (impartial) court advisors or members of the jury to being partisan witnesses (Eigen 1995; Watson, 2006). In their roles as partisan witnesses, the experts faced a myriad of challenges which they sought to overcome through different means. This paper seeks to compare and contrast the challenges facing psychiatric and toxicological expertise in the nineteenth century “Adversarial Courtroom”, and the strategies they adopted to legitimate their knowledge.

One of the challenges faced by toxicological expertise in the adversarial court in the 1800s was to do with the transfer of knowledge from the laboratory to the courtroom. In an adversarial system, it was the norm that all expert testimony would be met with contradictions that had the potential to damaged the image of the professions that the expert witnesses represented. On the witness stand, toxicologists, psychiatrists and indeed other experts presented evidence that (scientifically) contradicted those presented by the opposing side. The effect of this was that the public developed serious doubts about the integrity of the expert witnesses and the science they professed.  In some cases, the toxicologists, physicians, and psychiatrists, in their positions as expert witnesses, were accused of   being incompetent or corrupt. In response to these accusations, the expert witnesses often cited their credibility.

In Mary Fleming’s murder trial that took place in 1896, for example, her lawyers questioned the reputation of a German chemist by the name Walter Scheele (Essig 2002). continue reading …

Challenges Facing Psychiatric & Toxicological Expertise …

Harley Davidson Resources Capabilities

This article attempts to answer the following questions:

Q1. What are the resources and capabilities of Harley-Davidson? And how do they grant the firm competitive advantage to compete in the motorcycle industry? -Harley-Davidson Resources Capabilities
Q2/ How effectively Harley Davidson’s strategy is implemented and how the firm exploit its key strengths while protecting itself from its key weaknesses?
Q3. What threats to its continuing success does Harley Davidson face, and how should it respond to current & future challenges?

Case study source: Robert M. Grant.  Contemporary Strategy Analysis.

Harley Davidson’s Resources, Capabilities, Strategy and Threats

Resources have been defined as inputs into the production process (Grant, 1991) and as the productive assets owned by the firm (Grant, 2016). Based on these definitions, resources are basically what the firm has and that it can use to create value. Resources can be tangible, intangible, or human as noted by Grant (2016). Tangible resources are resources that can be touched, such as financial resources (like cash, securities, and borrowing capacity) and physical items (like land, plant, equipment and mineral reserves). Intangible resources are resources that cannot be touched and include such things as reputation (brand and relationships), position, technology (such as patents and copyrights) and culture. Human resources include skills or know-how and productive effort offered by the firm’s employees (Grant, 2016). It also includes motivation and capacity for communication. It is worth noting that the firm does not own its workers but it purchases their services through employment contracts. On their own, or in combination with other resources to form capabilities, resources can be sources of competitive advantage (Edwards, 2014).

An analysis of the internal environment of Harley-Davidson reveals that the firm has numerous resources. One of the resources the company has is its brand. In this regard, Harley-Davidson has a good reputation which has greatly contributed to its success in the market (Grant, 2016) … continue

According to Grant (2016), strategy is concerned with matching company’s resources and capabilities to the opportunities that emerge in the external environment. While in agreement with this notion, David (2011) notes that although a strategy can be good or effective, its implementation can be poor or ineffective. Harley-Davidson sought to achieve competitive advantage and higher sales by developing and implementing several strategies. One of Harley’s key strategies was that it sold a unique Harley-Davidson experience rather than motorcycles (Grant, 2016). … continue

Based on Porter’s five forces model, factors such as bargaining power of supplies, bargaining power of buyers, threat of substitutes, and the threat of new entrants can threaten the success and profitability of a business (Mille, et al. 2011; Porter, 2017). Harley faces the threat of new entrants such as witnessed in the entry of Excelsior, Polaris (Victory), and Indian into the motorcycles market. These and other new entrants have the potential to eat into Harley’s market share in different markets, thereby reducing the company’s sales and profitability. … continue

Harley Davidson Resources Capabilities

Harwell Fashion Product Life Cycle

Harwell group expresses their gratitude for the last advice you provided when they were venturing into the food and drinks business….

Harwell group case study: This paper discusses Harwell fashion business stage of the product life cycle and provides advice on next steps. The paper reviews a minimum of three strategic management models relevant to Harwell group based on the strategic choices available to the group. The paper provides advice on how consumers can become attached and remain loyal to ‘Zest’ over other energy drinks. The paper also provides recommendations on how Harwell group can change its system and manage the change management process effectively and without disrupting its current sales and marketing while effecting the changes. 

Harwell Group Business Strategy


Harwell Group is a company based in Scotland that so far has four businesses (sports, events, fitness, and fashion). Considering that it is experiencing reduced profits in these business areas and especially fashion, the business considered the option of entering the energy drinks market by offering a canned energy drink (Zest) as its product and sought advice on this matter. …

The Life cycle Stage of the Fashion Business

One of the businesses that Harwell Group engages in is fashion. To establish what is ailing the fashion industry, it is vital to consider the business and its products in light of product life cycle. Stark (2015) notes that the product life cycle is an essential concept in marketing. Product life cycle basically describes the stages that a product undergoes from the time it is first conceived to when it is eventually removed from the market. Not all products reach the final stage; while some rise and fall, others continue on the growth path. The product life cycle has four main stages … including introduction, growth, maturity, and decline as can be seen in figure 1. …

Strategic Choices for Harwell Group

With several brands and businesses, including fashion, in its portfolio, Harwell Group is probably faced with the challenge of how to allocate its limited resources for investment across its businesses. It may decide to close the unprofitable fashion business altogether or continue operating it. One model that can help the company decide whether or not to close the fashion business is the Boston … Commonly known as the Boston …, the model analyses a portfolio of products or businesses based on market share and market growth (Marci, 2017). Based on these two factors, the Boston … categorises products into one of four areas; stars, … and dogs (Marci, 2017), as can be seen in figure 2. continue reading


  • Executive Summary
  • Introduction
  • The Lifecycle Stage of the Fashion Business
  • Strategic Choices for Harwell Group
  • How to Attract Customer Loyalty to Zest
  • Management of Change Relating to the New IT System
  • Summary and Conclusion
  • References

Harwell Fashion Product Life Cycle

Harwell Energy Drink Business

Prompt: Harwell ltd. was established in 1974 in Scotland by Lewis and Rebecca Harwell. Their vision is to build a chain of companies within the Harwell group. Currently they have established four different companies which are up and running in various industries, they include: fashion, sports, events and fitness. Their most recent investment was in the IT industry but this eventually became unsuccessful. Lewis and Rebecca are now set to take on a new investment and the group’s net worth has recently been valued at £6.7 million. They plan to venture into the food and drinks industry particularly focusing on the production of canned energy drinks. Although this is a highly competitive sector of the food industry, they have both chosen this because of the increase in demand for energy drinks. Based on your knowledge of strategic position, Lewis and Rebecca have requested you carry out a thorough analysis on their new investment carefully considering the followings:

  1. The external business environment and how this may influence the new investment
  2. Competitive/market forces that would impact this business both positively and negatively
  3. What marketing/penetration strategies do you think can be implemented to boost the market share of this product, hence increasing sales and profit margins
  4. Critically analyse the marketing mix and suggest the most appropriate marketing mix for this product.

Hint: Your advice should be mainly based on key strategic theories and frameworks. You are allowed to make reasonable assumptions stating clear reasons for these if you need to do so –  Harwell energy drink business –Harwell Group Investment in Energy Drink Business (below).  

Harwell Group Investment in Energy Drink Business


Deciding on whether or not to venture into a particular business is an important strategic decision. Careful consideration guided by a thorough analysis of different factors should be done before making such a decision. An analysis of the internal and external business environments should be done to help decide whether or not it is worth venturing into the new business (Pal, 2000). The external business environment greatly affects the chances of a company succeeding in a given industry or market (Thilakasiri, 2018). It is also crucial for business owners and managers to evaluate the competitive forces, penetration strategies, and market mix to be applied by their business as these also significantly affect the chances of the business’ success. Against this background, Harwell Group, which is considering the option of venturing into the energy drinks business in the United Kingdom, should analyse the external business environment and competitive forces in relation to the energy drinks market before deciding on whether or not to invest in this business.

This paper analyses the external business environment in relation to the energy drinks market in the UK through a pestle analysis. A pestle analysis evaluates the political, economic, social, technological, legal, and environmental factors that make up the business environment (Kayumi, 2014). A pestle analysis has been chosen in this case, considering its capacity to assess the prevailing business environment and changes that can potentially affect it (Kayumi, 2014). In addition, the paper will analyse the competitive environment in relation to the energy drinks market. Based on the results of these analyses, recommendations will be made on whether Harwell Group should go ahead and invest in the energy drinks business, the most appropriate penetration strategy, and the best marketing mix to apply.

External Business Environment

Political Factors

Political factors touch on how and the extent to which government intervenes in the economy. Given that Harwell Group is based in Scotland, it is subject to the political environment of the United Kingdom. The UK has enjoyed political stability for a long time, is governed by the rule of law, and is based on democracy (Trading Economics, 2021). The political environment of the nation is such that doing legal business is encouraged. Recently, there have been growing calls for Scotland to break away from the UK, which could have far-reaching effects on the political, economic, social, and legal environments, and by extension, the business environment in Scotland and the rest of the UK (Milligan, 2021). From the outlook, there is little chance that such a change can occur within the next five years, which possibly implies the continued political stability of the UK in the next ten or so years. The UK government constantly monitors the inflation level and takes appropriate measures to see that the annual rate averages 2% (Bank of England, 2021).

Continue …

Alternative link.  

Executive Summary
External Business Environment
Political Factors
Legal Factors
Competitive/ Market Forces
Buyer Power
Supplier Power
Competitive Rivalry
Threat of Substitution
Threat of New Entry
Marketing/Penetration Strategies
Marketing Mix
Appendix 1: Prompt

Keywords: Harwell external business environment, Harwell Competitive forces, Harwell  market forces, Harwell Marketing Strategies, Harwell Penetration Strategies, Harwell Marketing Mix, Harwell Energy Drinks. 

Harwell Energy Drinks Business

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