Harwell Fashion Product Life Cycle

Harwell group expresses their gratitude for the last advice you provided when they were venturing into the food and drinks business….

Harwell group case study: This paper discusses Harwell fashion business stage of the product life cycle and provides advice on next steps. The paper reviews a minimum of three strategic management models relevant to Harwell group based on the strategic choices available to the group. The paper provides advice on how consumers can become attached and remain loyal to ‘Zest’ over other energy drinks. The paper also provides recommendations on how Harwell group can change its system and manage the change management process effectively and without disrupting its current sales and marketing while effecting the changes. 

Harwell Group Business Strategy


Harwell Group is a company based in Scotland that so far has four businesses (sports, events, fitness, and fashion). Considering that it is experiencing reduced profits in these business areas and especially fashion, the business considered the option of entering the energy drinks market by offering a canned energy drink (Zest) as its product and sought advice on this matter. …

The Life cycle Stage of the Fashion Business

One of the businesses that Harwell Group engages in is fashion. To establish what is ailing the fashion industry, it is vital to consider the business and its products in light of product life cycle. Stark (2015) notes that the product life cycle is an essential concept in marketing. Product life cycle basically describes the stages that a product undergoes from the time it is first conceived to when it is eventually removed from the market. Not all products reach the final stage; while some rise and fall, others continue on the growth path. The product life cycle has four main stages … including introduction, growth, maturity, and decline as can be seen in figure 1. …

Strategic Choices for Harwell Group

With several brands and businesses, including fashion, in its portfolio, Harwell Group is probably faced with the challenge of how to allocate its limited resources for investment across its businesses. It may decide to close the unprofitable fashion business altogether or continue operating it. One model that can help the company decide whether or not to close the fashion business is the Boston … Commonly known as the Boston …, the model analyses a portfolio of products or businesses based on market share and market growth (Marci, 2017). Based on these two factors, the Boston … categorises products into one of four areas; stars, … and dogs (Marci, 2017), as can be seen in figure 2. continue reading


  • Executive Summary
  • Introduction
  • The Lifecycle Stage of the Fashion Business
  • Strategic Choices for Harwell Group
  • How to Attract Customer Loyalty to Zest
  • Management of Change Relating to the New IT System
  • Summary and Conclusion
  • References

Harwell Fashion Product Life Cycle

Harwell Energy Drink Business

Prompt: Harwell ltd. was established in 1974 in Scotland by Lewis and Rebecca Harwell. Their vision is to build a chain of companies within the Harwell group. Currently they have established four different companies which are up and running in various industries, they include: fashion, sports, events and fitness. Their most recent investment was in the IT industry but this eventually became unsuccessful. Lewis and Rebecca are now set to take on a new investment and the group’s net worth has recently been valued at £6.7 million. They plan to venture into the food and drinks industry particularly focusing on the production of canned energy drinks. Although this is a highly competitive sector of the food industry, they have both chosen this because of the increase in demand for energy drinks. Based on your knowledge of strategic position, Lewis and Rebecca have requested you carry out a thorough analysis on their new investment carefully considering the followings:

  1. The external business environment and how this may influence the new investment
  2. Competitive/market forces that would impact this business both positively and negatively
  3. What marketing/penetration strategies do you think can be implemented to boost the market share of this product, hence increasing sales and profit margins
  4. Critically analyse the marketing mix and suggest the most appropriate marketing mix for this product.

Hint: Your advice should be mainly based on key strategic theories and frameworks. You are allowed to make reasonable assumptions stating clear reasons for these if you need to do so –  Harwell energy drink business –Harwell Group Investment in Energy Drink Business (below).  

Harwell Group Investment in Energy Drink Business


Deciding on whether or not to venture into a particular business is an important strategic decision. Careful consideration guided by a thorough analysis of different factors should be done before making such a decision. An analysis of the internal and external business environments should be done to help decide whether or not it is worth venturing into the new business (Pal, 2000). The external business environment greatly affects the chances of a company succeeding in a given industry or market (Thilakasiri, 2018). It is also crucial for business owners and managers to evaluate the competitive forces, penetration strategies, and market mix to be applied by their business as these also significantly affect the chances of the business’ success. Against this background, Harwell Group, which is considering the option of venturing into the energy drinks business in the United Kingdom, should analyse the external business environment and competitive forces in relation to the energy drinks market before deciding on whether or not to invest in this business.

This paper analyses the external business environment in relation to the energy drinks market in the UK through a pestle analysis. A pestle analysis evaluates the political, economic, social, technological, legal, and environmental factors that make up the business environment (Kayumi, 2014). A pestle analysis has been chosen in this case, considering its capacity to assess the prevailing business environment and changes that can potentially affect it (Kayumi, 2014). In addition, the paper will analyse the competitive environment in relation to the energy drinks market. Based on the results of these analyses, recommendations will be made on whether Harwell Group should go ahead and invest in the energy drinks business, the most appropriate penetration strategy, and the best marketing mix to apply.

External Business Environment

Political Factors

Political factors touch on how and the extent to which government intervenes in the economy. Given that Harwell Group is based in Scotland, it is subject to the political environment of the United Kingdom. The UK has enjoyed political stability for a long time, is governed by the rule of law, and is based on democracy (Trading Economics, 2021). The political environment of the nation is such that doing legal business is encouraged. Recently, there have been growing calls for Scotland to break away from the UK, which could have far-reaching effects on the political, economic, social, and legal environments, and by extension, the business environment in Scotland and the rest of the UK (Milligan, 2021). From the outlook, there is little chance that such a change can occur within the next five years, which possibly implies the continued political stability of the UK in the next ten or so years. The UK government constantly monitors the inflation level and takes appropriate measures to see that the annual rate averages 2% (Bank of England, 2021).

Continue …

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Executive Summary
External Business Environment
Political Factors
Legal Factors
Competitive/ Market Forces
Buyer Power
Supplier Power
Competitive Rivalry
Threat of Substitution
Threat of New Entry
Marketing/Penetration Strategies
Marketing Mix
Appendix 1: Prompt

Keywords: Harwell external business environment, Harwell Competitive forces, Harwell  market forces, Harwell Marketing Strategies, Harwell Penetration Strategies, Harwell Marketing Mix, Harwell Energy Drinks. 

Harwell Energy Drinks Business

Nike Supply Chain Time-Based Competition (TBC)

Nike Supply Chain Time-Based Competition (TBC)


Nike is multinational company that designs, develops, manufactures, and markets sports equipment, footwear, clothes, and accessories. The company was established in 1964 and has over the years grown to into a strong international brand (Success Story 2019). Nike’s success in the last couple of years has, in part, been linked to the changes it has made to its systems and its revolutionary approach to manufacturing and product distribution. Some of the changes made to the company’s manufacturing processes, systems, and supply chain management have enabled Nike achieve time-based competitiveness. Dempsey et al. (2014) define time-based competition (TBC) as the strategic advantage gained from making the order-to-delivery cycle more compact, efficient, and cost effective for both the supplier and the consumer.

Nike Supply Chain Time-Based Competition

In other words, time based competition seeks to reduce the time required to propose, design, develop, manufacture and deliver products (Blackburn 2012). As noted by Olah et al. (2018), time-based competition (TBC) essentially involves the use of time (vis-a-vis cost) as the main factor for achieving and maintaining competitive advantage – Nike Supply Chain Time-Based Competition.

Nike and Time-Based Competition

With respect to time-based competition, Nike has succeeded in significantly lowering the amount of time it needs to manufacture its shoe products from as much as 18 weeks to only a few days. According to Bain (2017), this it has achieved by reducing the number of steps ordinarily involved in manufacturing shoes from design to prototype development ready for production. Ordinarily, the company would have to develop or produce several patterns, moulds, samples, and prototypes before commencing actual production. However, the company has reduced these numbers by relying on technologies such as Computer Aided Design (CAD), 3-dimensional imaging, and simulation. These technologies enable the company bypass some of these time consuming stages in the process of developing products (Huang 2016; Bain 2017). In addition, the company applies several innovative technologies as part of its manufacturing processes, which enable it produce several products within a much shorter duration. Read more

Main Features of Haier’s Internationalization Strategy

What are the main features of Haier’s internationalization strategy since early 1990s and how does it differ from the pattern of international typical of Western enterprises? How successful has Haier’s internationalization strategy been and why? What are the principal features of Haier’s management system? In what ways do Haier’s principles and methods of management differ from those deployed by Western companies? What lessons might be drawn by a) other Chinese companies and b) by Western enterprises? – Haier Group Internationalization Strategy and Management System (below).

Key text: Grant, R (2016). Contemporary Strategy Analysis.

Haier Group Internationalization Strategy

Haier Group’s Internationalization Strategy and Management System


Haier Group is a multinational company that manufactures and markets home appliances and consumer electronic products. Simply referred to as Haier, the group started off as a small bankrupt company called Qingdao General Refrigerator Factory before growing to become a global leader in the production of house hold appliances. Today, the company markets its products in well over 100 countries across the world (Haier UK 2014). While the company has its global headquarters in Qingdao China, it has a number of regional headquarters (including Paris and New York) to serve its clients in the respective regions. There is wide agreement among business experts and scholars that Zhang Rumin contributed greatly to the growth and success of Haier. As CEO of the company, Zhang saw the company transform from the bankrupt Qingdao General Refrigerator Factory to the highly successful and leading brand that it is today. Under his leadership, the company focused on producing high quality products and began applying a management system that was customer centric with product development focusing greatly on fulfilling consumers’ needs. The company also began and greatly advanced its internationalisation journey under Zhang’s leadership. Haier’s internationalisation strategy and management methods have been a subject of great praise and admiration worldwide given their contributions to the Group’s success. However, they have also been criticised by pundits who feel that the strategy was not as orderly and not as integrated as it should have been. Questions have also been raised regarding the cohesiveness of the strategy and its rationale especially considering its uneven performance in different markets. These criticisms notwithstanding, there is wide consensus that the strategy was a success and that it presents important lessons for companies that wish to internationalise. This paper discusses Haier’s internationalisation strategy and the Group’s management system as established by Zhang Rumin. More specifically, the paper answers the questions: What are the main features of Haier’s internationalization strategy since early 1990s and how does it differ from the pattern of international development typical of Western enterprises? How successful has Haier’s internationalization strategy been and why? What are the principal features of Haier’s management system? In what ways do Haier’s principles and methods of management differ from those deployed by Western companies? What lessons might be drawn by a) other Chinese companies and b) by Western enterprises?

The Main Features of Haier’s Internationalization Strategy and How the Strategy Differs From the Pattern of International Development Typical of Western Enterprises

Companies can expand beyond national markets through internationalisation. An internationalisation strategy is basically the strategy that a firm applies to sell its products in foreign markets. It involves applying one or more modes of international business (Chryssochoidis and Clegg 1997). Some of the modes of international business include exporting, licensing, franchising, partnering or strategic alliance, acquisition, establishing new, wholly owned subsidiary, and joint venture (Shaker et al. 2000; Azuayi 2016).  In different situations, Haier applied different modes of international business. To enter the U.S. market, for example, the company initially exported manufactured products to the country and relied on a strategic partner (Wellbilt Appliances) to distribute the products. To market its products in the Netherlands, Germany, and Italy, the company exported its products under the Haier brand (Grant 2016). In countries such as Malaysia, Indonesia, and Philippines, the company formed joint ventures with local companies and relied on them to produce and sell products such as refrigerators and air conditioners (Grant 2016). For Haier, the goal behind its internationalisation was to build a global brand and to become an internationally competitive brand, rather than merely to exploit China’s low manufacturing costs (Grant 2016). In addition, the company sought to create the famous brand of China in the world through its internationalisation. Furthermore, it was aimed at challenging the company to raise to word-class level its standards of marketing, customer service, manufacturing, and product development (Grant 2016). The internationalisation strategy applied by Haier had certain key features which will be discussed in the following sections. Read more

One key feature of Haier’s Internationalisation strategy was its focus on entering and tackling difficult or more sophisticated markets first before tackling easy or less developed ones. As noted by Yan and Guanli (2011), in the process of internationalisation, companies have two modes or options. Continue …

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  • Introduction
  • The Main Features of Haier’s Internationalization Strategy and How the Strategy Differs From the Pattern of International Development Typical of Western Enterprises
  • The Uppsala Model in Relation to Haier’s Internationalisation Strategy
  • The Success of Haier’s Internationalization Strategy
  • Principal Features of Haier’s Management System
  • Haier’s Principles and Methods of Management
  • Lessons that can be Learnt from Haier
  • Conclusion
  • References

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PESTLE Analysis for Parcel Delivery Using Drones

PESTLE Analysis for Parcel Delivery Using Drones in the UK Market

1.0 Introduction
SFS Express is a Chinese company that provides logistics and parcel delivery
services. Having witnessed a lot of success in the Chinese market with its parcel delivery services that relies on drones to make last mile deliveries, the company intends to expand by venturing into the UK market. Being a foreign market, SFS Express needs to understand the external business environment of the UK and its suitability for parcel delivery and courier services using drones. This report presents a PESTLE analysis of the courier and parcel delivery service market as applies to the UK.

2.0 Political
A stable political environment is important for business and provides a conducive environment for economic activities. The United Kingdom is a peaceful country with a stable political environment. The country’s postal and courier industry is liberalized so that any interested person can easily enter the industry (Brown and Conway 2017). The industry is widely unregulated, a factor that has led to the poor services by some industry players (Tims 2014). Operators may, for example, provide postal and courier
services without a license or without prior authorization from Ofcom, the industry regulator (Brown and Conway 2017). Although the industry generally remains widely unregulated, shipping products to and from international destinations outside the European Union requires custom clearance and is highly regulated (Parcel Hero
2015). Several legal hurdles make international shipping both expensive and difficult, which has rendered international shipping unattractive for relatively small firms (UK Government 2017). While the liberation and limited regulation of the parcels industry makes it easy for businesses to venture into the industry, it also gives room for the entry of many players in the industry, which potentially makes the industry highly competitive.

The courier and parcel delivery market in the UK is taxed the same way as other industries. While corporate tax has been set at 19% since 2017, this rate is set to be reduced to 18% as from April, 2020 (with a possible further reduction to 17%) (HM Revenue and Customs 2018). Continue …

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PESTLE Analysis for Parcel Delivery Using Drones

Market Segmentation Targeting Positioning Examples

The following article attempts to provide an answer to this prompt: 

“…positioning and segmentation are distinct parts of the strategy process and provide us with some extremely powerful tools; but ultimately they are linked by the central issue of focusing on satisfying customer’s needs in ways that are superior to competitors(Hooley et al, 2017 p159)

By reference to academic literature evaluate, and critique, the concepts of
Segmentation, Targeting & Positioning (STP) including a consideration of
implementation issues. With supporting evidence, use appropriate examples from different industries (plural) to exemplify how different organisations (plural) have applied STP, to demonstrate your learning and application of this topic. Indicate how any company could apply the concepts around STP, making generic recommendations for best practice.

Market Segmentation, Targeting & Positioning (STP) with Company Examples


Market Segmentation Targeting Positioning ExamplesEver increasing competition and greater demands by customers have rendered mass marketing virtually ineffective in several product categories (Harvard Business Review, 2006). As a consequence of the increasing competition and the rise of ever more demanding customers, producers are constantly seeking ways to differentiate their products and meet the specific needs of smaller customer groups. Today, it is a fact that coming up with a great product alone is not enough to achieve market success. Against this backdrop, companies need to apply strategic marketing. One of the strategic marketing tools that firms can use to their advantage towards achieving success in the market is segmentation, targeting and positioning (STP). Worth noting is that STP is as much a tool as it is a strategic approach and model used in marketing. STP is part of the process involved in coming up with a marketing strategy and summarises the market segmentation process. Hooley et al. (2012, p. 183) note that although positioning and segmentation are distinct parts of the [marketing] strategy, they are centrally linked by their focus on satisfying customers’ needs in a better way than competitors do. This paper discusses segmentation, targeting and positioning and illustrates the application of STP using different industry and company examples (with greater focus on car manufacturer, Volkswagen). The paper concludes with recommendations for companies with respect to the application of STP – market segmentation targeting and positioning examples.

Related article: Segmentation Targeting and Positioning Volkswagen

Market Segmentation

Market segmentation, according to William Stanton, is the process of dividing the heterogeneous market for a product into several sub-markets or segments, each of which tends to display homogeneity in all important aspects (Rudani, 2010; Tabavar n.d., p. 63). …  As noted above, segmentation is aimed at enabling the firm give proper attention to the needs of specific customers that collectively form a segment, thereby maximising consumer satisfaction and profits for the business (Bihani, 2004). A company’s market can be partitioned or divided based on different bases. Some of the bases commonly applied towards the segmentation of a market include demographic, behavioural, geographic, and psychographic characteristics (Anand, 2016). … A company such as cosmetics manufacturer L’Oréal applies demographic and psychographic segmentation in marketing its products. With regard to demographic segmentation, L’Oréal produces certain brands specifically for …. With respect to psychographic segmentation, L’Oréal produces different products that are targeted at different markets depending on …; there are products for general consumers and there are those for … consumers such as …. Continue reading  .

Other subtopics included in the article: Targeting, Segmentation, Application of STP by Volkswagen (VW), Recommendations for Companies. 

Related article: Segmentation Targeting and Positioning Volkswagen

Segmentation Targeting and Positioning Volkswagen

segmentation targeting and positioning strategy exampleThis article presents a segmentation targeting and positioning strategy example.  It also presents a segmenting targeting positioning example. It discusses market segmentation of cars and stp model marketing example, and is related to market segmentation for car industry, automotive market segments, automotive market segmentation, and marketing stp. It attempts to answer the question how do car companies segment their market? Article preview: 

Segmentation, Targeting and Positioning by Volkswagen


Many successful companies across the world apply segmentation, targeting and positioning (STP) as part of their marketing strategies. Volkswagen (VW), a company that makes cars is one of the successful companies that apply STP. Established in 1937, the company manufactures several car brands including Audi, Seat, Lamborghini, Skoda, Porshe, Scania, Man, Bentley, Bugatti, and Volkswagen (Volkswgen, 2018a; Bhasin, 2017; Volkswagen, 2018b). While its headquarter is in Wolfburg, Germany, the company has several branches and plants spread out in different parts of the world. This enables it to meet the needs of its global clientele, with the help of a robust distribution network. This paper briefly discusses segmentation and targeting before focusing on how Volkswagen has segmented its market, its target markets (segments), and how the brand is positioned.

Related Article: Market Segmentation, Targeting & Positioning (STP) with Company Examples

Segmentation and Targeting

Market segmentation, according to William Stanton, is the process of dividing the heterogeneous market for a product into several sub-markets or segments, each of which tends to display homogeneity in all important aspects (Rudani, 2010; Tabavar n.d., p. 63).  Philip Kotler, on the other hand, defines segmentation as the process of dividing a market into discrete groups of buyers based on factors such as needs or characteristics, behaviour, marketing mixes, or who might require different products (Rudani, 2010). A company’s market can be partitioned or divided based on different factors. Some of the bases commonly applied in segmenting a market are demographic characteristics (such as age, gender, religion, income levels, family size), behavioural characteristics (such as brand loyalty status, usage rates/consumption levels, benefits sought by the buyer, response to a product, and occupation), geographic characteristics (such as geographic location, cultural preferences, language, population type and density (urban, rural, exurban, suburban), time zone, and climate/season, and psychographic characteristics (such as values, beliefs, interests, attitudes, lifestyles, personality traits, social status). 

Targeting, according to Bihani (2004), is the process of evaluating how attractive market segments are and choosing the segment(s) to enter. It involves making choices taking into consideration available and necessary resources. Firms have a number of options with regard to the targeting strategy to apply. The main targeting strategies that companies can apply are mass marketing, niche marketing, segmented marketing, and micromarketing (Strydom, 2005; Kotler et al., 2015).

Segmentation and Targeting by Volkswagen

Volkswagen applies segmented marketing and has its market partitioned based on a mix of psychographic, demographic, geographic, and behavioural factors to meet the specific needs of different groups of customers. The following section discusses Volkswagen’s market segmentation based on these factors/bases.

Psychographic segmentation involves partitioning a market based on customers’ values, beliefs, interests, attitudes, lifestyles, personality traits, social status, or other psychographic factors. Volkswagen has partitioned its market based on customers’ interests and lifestyles. In this regard, some of the segments the company targets include consumers who simply need mobility, enthusiasts and consumers who need comfort. 

The compact or small cars that VW manufactures such as the beetle, polo, and golf are aimed at catering to the needs of consumers who simply need mobility or who simply wish to enjoy the utility value of a car … The cars targeted at these consumers are simple in design, …, and are cheaper to buy and maintain. …

Positioning of Volkswagen/ Volkswagen Brand Positioning

Market positioning, according to Wilkinson (2013), is the process of establishing the identity or image of a product or brand so that it is perceived in a certain way by consumers.With regard to positioning, Volkswagen takes pride in being a leader in … and to this extent uses the
tagline “….”. … Volkswagen mostly positions itself as … that produces … vehicles which attrac
t … compared to most car brands with more or less similar specifications. Whichever place the Volkswagen car is marketed, it is positioned as a vehicle that promises … 


Volkswagen segments its market based on a mix of psychographic, … factors to meet the specific needs of different groups of customers. With respect to psychographic segmentation, the company has segmented its market based on customers’ interests, … and lifestyles. …. The company applies … given that it has segmented its market based on how consumers intend to use vehicles. There are consumers who need vehicles for … use while others need them for …. use. Going by …., Volkswagen positions itself as a …. brand that produces … efficient vehicles.   Read the entire paper …

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Related article: Market Segmentation, Targeting & Positioning (STP) with Company Examples

Segmentation and Targeting
 – Segmentation and Targeting by Volkswagen
       – Psychographic Segmentation
       – Demographic Segmentation
       – Geographic Segmentation
       – Behavioural Segmentation
– Positioning of Volkswagen
– Conclusion
– References

Segmentation, Targeting and Positioning by Volkswagen


Pestle Analysis Sample: Small Law Firm in the U.K.

External Business Environment of Fenwick & Co. LLP

Economic Environment

Pestle analysis law firmThe economy of the UK was greatly affected by the 2007-2008 financial crises. Ever since mid 2009, the country has been recovering from the crisis (Price Waterhouse Coopers 2016). Its recovery, although slower by historical standards, has been faster than that recorded by most of the other G7 economies over the same duration. While the country’s GDP growth dipped slightly in 2015, consumer spending remained relatively strong, the situation further boosted by lower oil prices. Analysts estimate that the country will achieve a GDP growth of 2% in 2016 as noted by Price Waterhouse Coopers (2016). It is also expected that consumer spending will remain strong during the year much as food and energy prices will remain low. Economists estimate that the inflation rate will gradually rise to the 2% mark from the current zero% later in 2017, which could prompt the Monetary Policy Commission (MPC) to raise the interest rates (Price Waterhouse Coopers 2016). For almost seven years, the interest rate has been maintained at almost zero percent.

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According to Spence (2016), the UK has a public debt in excess of £1.5 trillion. While this is the case, the government is steadily on track in repaying this debt. Analysts note that in 2015, the UK emerged as one of the fastest growing major developed economies. The rate of unemployment steadily fell during the year steadying at 5.4% while the housing market thrived (Elliott 2015). Consumer spending during the year also grew, a trend that will most likely continue in 2016 going by experts predictions. The country has also benefited from the strengthening of the pound against major currencies including the Euro and the US dollar in 2015 according to Elliott (2015). Although the first half of 2016 seems promising for the nation in economic terms, the second half is quite uncertain as noted by Elliott (2015). The uncertainty in this respect revolves around the impending referendum on Brexit.

Social-Cultural Environment

The UK has a population of more than 65.6 million people according to the Office for National Statistics (2018). Of this population, those ages 0-14, 15-24,25-54, 55-64 and 65 years and over account for 17.3%, 12.6%, 41%, 11.5% and 17.5% respectively (Index Mundi 2015). The population growth rate stands at close to 0.54%, the population comprising different ethnic groups, majority of which is White (87.2%). Close to 80% of the population of the UK lives in urban areas with London hosting over nine million residents (Index Mundi 2015). The nation has a literacy level of 99% according to Index Mundi (2015). The aging population in the country is steadily growing which also means that spending on the aging population by government and individuals is steadily rising (Kingsfund 2016).

London has a population of more than 8.8 million individuals according to Prynn  (2017). Majority of people living in London are in the 16-34 age bracket (Trust for London 2016). The city has a growing population of persons aged 65 and over. Reflective of national statistics, the city has a literacy level of 99%. The population of the city is mixed with ethnic groups including Whites, Blacks, and Asians (Trust for London 2016). Being a global business hub, London has a high population of foreigners from both EU and non-EU countries. The level of migration to and from London remains high at different times of the year. The prominent presence of foreigners in the city has seen residents of London embrace different lifestyles and cultures as influenced by visitors.

In general, people in the UK have divided opinions regarding whether the country should withdraw from the European Union. They are also divided on the net effects of a UK withdrawal from the EU in the immediate, medium and long terms. A recent opinion poll indicated that 46% of UK nationals want the UK to remain in the EU against 43% opposed to this view (Financial Times 2016). The population enjoys a lot of freedom in choosing what individuals do and where they work. Most individuals however work in urban areas where job opportunities abound.


One of the technologies that affect how business is conducted anywhere in the world is Information Communication Technology. Statistics indicate that over 90% of adults in the UK use computing devices on a daily basis (Office of National Statistics 2015). Statistics further indicate that close to 38 million adults, accounting for 77% of the country’s adult population, have access to the Internet on a daily basis (Office of National Statistics 2015). Between 2010 and 2014, usage of mobile phones to access the Internet grew from 25% to 58% (Office of National Statistics 2015). Well over 91% of UK households currently have access to broadband Internet.

Statistics show that over the years, use of ICT to procure or offer services has steadily grown among UK nationals (Office of National Statistics 2015). Some of the activities that people across the nation perform using the Internet include Internet banking, reading news, finding information regarding products, sending and receiving emails, buying or selling products, playing games, downloading software and social networking (Office of National Statistics 2015). The advent of social media has transformed the way businesses market themselves and interact with current and potential customers. Many businesses in London today have an online presence both in the form of a website or on social media. Businesses rely on social media to reach and respond to clients in real time. In general the Internet and social media have helped reduce the costs businesses have to occur in marketing their products, banking and in communicating with different persons. It has also made communication more efficient and effective. According to the Office of National Statistics (2015), close to 95% of households have televisions and roughly 93% of adults own a mobile phone in the nation.

Law firms in the UK and indeed other countries are fast adopting modern ways of doing business. Some of the law firms in London are going paperless as a way of reducing costs (Law technology Today 2015). The law firms are also using practice management software to schedule their activities and manage their resources for greater efficiency. As a way of reducing the risk of losing important information, many businesses are opting to store their data on the Cloud (Law Technology Today 2015). By backing up data on the Cloud, businesses are assured of having their information back in the event that the printed or soft copies they have locally are intentionally or accidentally destroyed or lost.

Legal Environment

The United Kingdom has a stable and reliable legal system. The country also has a reliable court system. Legislations and policies are instituted by the national and local governments through elected leaders. Several laws apply to businesses in the UK and London specifically. Some of these legislations relate to employment laws, contract laws, and environmental laws.

The national and local governments of the UK are concerned about the maintenance of a clean and safe physical environment. The Environmental Protection Act 1990 demands that domestic, commercial and industrial wastes be properly disposed to ensure that the environment remains clean (Tromans 1991). The law also aims at preventing harmful or unauthorised activities. The law places the duty of care on specific persons with a view of ensuring that wastes are properly managed without contravening on other people’s rights (Defra 1996). The London County Council has also instituted laws to ensure that the physical environment is conducive and that all kinds of pollution are minimised. Appreciating the fact that climate change is a serious global issue, the different levels of government of the UK are taking measures to ensure that nationals minimise emission of greenhouse gases.

Some of the policies and regulations that have been enacted recently and that will affect the operations of Fenwick & Co. LLP include the Pre-Action Protocol for Personal Injury Claims (2013), the Children and Families Act 2014 (CFA 2014), and the Finance Bill 2016 (Ministry of Justice 2013; UK Parliament (2016).


Being a major city, London has a huge population of people. The city has a good transport network comprising road, rail and air transport systems (London County Government 2016). In spite of the huge population of people in the city, the city’s environment is generally clean and well planned. More than 50% of the area in the city is covered in plants making the air quality much better that it is in most cities around the world (London County Government 2016). With parks and green spaces covering a huge part of the city, people in the city have several options to choose from when it comes to resting and leisure. The city has a reliable supply of clean water and well maintained sewer and drainage systems. In general, the city has a good infrastructural network that is vital for the success of businesses.


Fenwick & Co. LLP is operating in a business environment that is both politically, economically, and socially stable in spite of the changes that could result from the UK’s withdrawal from the European Union. The huge population of London, its position as a business hub, its good environment and infrastructure together make it a strategic location for doing business. With the UK experiencing steady recovery from the effects of the global financial crisis, low interest rates, low inflation, increasing consumer spending power, and a growing population of elderly individuals, there are high chances that in the foreseeable future, small law firms like Fenwick & Co. LLP are bound to experience good economic times. Although the effects of the UK’s withdrawal from the EU are yet to be fully appreciated, there are high chances that small law firms in London will gain significantly from a withdrawal. This is the case given that many law firms owned by foreigners may exit the market as a direct result of the withdrawal leaving fewer players in the market.

The company needs to take a number of measures to position itself as an emerging leader in the market. One of the measures that the company should take is strengthen its online and social media presence as a way of attracting more customers and creating awareness of its brand. The company should also purchase and make use of practice management software as a way of increasing its efficiency. Although storing information on the Cloud comes at a cost, the business needs to go this direction as a way of insuring itself against the effects of losing vital information. The company should also take every measure to align its activities with legislations such as the employment laws. Recent changes in laws relating to crime, family, and Personal Injury Claims call for an update of the employees’ knowledge of the laws and their effects on the business and its clients. Fenwick & Co. LLP which intends to establish other branches in the near future may not be able to do so in other EU countries easily in the event that the UK withdraws from the EU. The company should consider seeking alternative sites as soon as the results of the referendum indicate that the UK will withdraw from the EU.


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Financial Times (2016) UK’s EU referendum: Brexit poll tracker, Financial Times, London.

Grandhi K. (December 15, 2015) Rise in UK minimum wage will cost businesses more than £1bn, viewed from http://www.ibtimes.co.uk/rise-minimum-wage-will-cost-businesses-more-1bn-1533368 (Accessed 02 May, 2016).

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Kingsfund (2016) Ageing population, viewed from http://www.kingsfund.org.uk/time-to-think-differently/trends/demography/ageing-population (Accessed 02 May, 2016).

Law Technology Today (2015) How Lawyers Will Modernize Their Firms in 2015, viewed from http://www.lawtechnologytoday.org/2015/02/modernize-lawfirms-2015/ (Accessed 02 May, 2016).

London County Government (2016) Green Capital – Green Infrastructure for a future city, London County Government, London.

Ministry of Justice (2013) Pre-Action Protocol for Personal Injury Claims, Ministry of Justice, London.

Office of National Statistics (2015) Internet Access – Households and Individuals: 2014, Office of National Statistics, London.

Price Waterhouse Coopers (2016) UK Economic Outlook – March 2016, Price Waterhouse Coopers, London.

Spence P. (2016) How large is the UK’s national debt, and why does it matter?, viewed from http://www.telegraph.co.uk/business/2016/02/19/how-large-is-the-uks-national-debt-and-why-does-it-matter/ (Accessed 02 May, 2016).

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Tromans, S. (1991). Environmental Protection Act, 1990: Text and Commentary. London: Sweet & Maxwell.

Trust for London (2016) London’s population by age, viewed from http://www.londonspovertyprofile.org.uk/indicators/topics/londons-geography-population/londons-population-by-age/ (Accessed 02 May, 2016).

UK Government (2016) Corporation Tax rates and reliefs, viewed from https://www.gov.uk/corporation-tax-rates/rates (Accessed 02 May, 2016).

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Pestle Analysis Legal Services Industry UK

Pestle Analysis Legal Services Industry UK Example


Fenwick & Co. LLP is a law firm and partnership owned by two lawyers located in London’s Regent Street. Since the establishment of the firm, a number of changes have occurred in the business environment making it even more competitive. More law firms have been established in London and some have merged to form bigger corporations. In order to remain competitive, Fenwick & Co. LLP needs to analyse the external business environment with a view of identifying the measures it should take to remain competitive. The following sections of this report will discuss the political, economic, socio-cultural, technological, legal, and environmental factors of the market. The report will go further to provide recommendations that should be implemented to make the business perform better in a competitive business environment. This is a PESTLE analysis legal services industry UK example. 

Political Environment

The UK has had a stable democratic government and peaceful political environment for several decades, the situation expected to remain the same in the foreseeable future. One major change in the political environment of the UK has come in the form of Brexit, which has brought a lot of uncertainty to the political environment of the country. While the full effects of a possible Brexit remain unclear to a great extent, it remains a fact that there is a strong link between the nation’s legal sector and the wider economy as well as market forces. The implementation of Brexit is likely to see the UK toughen immigration laws for citizens of the European Union, making it difficult for them to live and do business in the country. Currently, the country provides virtually unrestricted access to foreign firms from about 40 jurisdictions to establish and practice law within its borders (TheCityUK, 2016b). This may change depending on the outcome of the ongoing negotiations between the UK and the EU revolving around Brexit. As a result, many foreign companies in the legal sector are likely to withdraw from the UK which may effectively create opportunities for emerging law firms like Fenwick & Co. LLP (The Law Society, 2015). In spite of the current political situation facing the UK, English and Welsh law remain the choice of law internationally.

According to TheCityUK (2016b), the UK is the leading international market for legal services in the world as well as the leading international centre for resolving disputes. Coupled with this is the fact that Wales and England (together) is the jurisdiction of choice for many international organisations (The Law Society 2016). Given that Fenwick & Co. LLP has foreign employees who are nationals of European Union countries, Brexit may lead to the loss of such employees or changes to their working conditions. Furthermore, Brexit may mean the loss of business for Fenwick & Co. LLP which serves customers across different EU countries on family matters and domestic conveyancing among other areas of law (The Law Society, 2015). This may be the case given that current and potential foreign customers may withdraw from the nation due to the implementation of tougher immigration policies and policies regulating foreign workers, which no doubt will affect the legal services industry.


Value of the Legal Industry

In 2016, legal activities contributed between £24.4 billion and £25.7 billion to the economy of the UK (The Law Society, 2016; Ullah, 2017). The legal services sector also contributed to trade activity in the country by amassing exports worth approximately 4.1 billion pounds (Ullah, 2017). Coupled with the need by companies in UK’s cities for legal advice on various issues, the growth in regulations has seen a sharp increase in the demand for the services of solicitors, most of whom have established in cities. The growing demand for legal services especially in cities has seen the number of solicitors increase by roughly 60% over the past decade (The City UK, 2016a).

Legal services activities are closely tied to financial service activities. For many financial services to be offered, certain enabling legal services such as contract development, deal structuring, dispute resolution, and broader advisory services are required. The high demand for legal services from financial services was highlighted by a report published by The Law Society. According to the report, the share of demand for financial services stood
at 17% (or £2.8bn) of total business demand; over three times the demand from the second largest external source (the construction sector) which accounts for 5% of total business (£ 919 million) (The Law Society, 2016). Given that Brexit is likely to have an impact on the financial services sector, there are fears that by extension, Brexit could have implications on legal services revenue (Ullah, 2017).

According to projections by The Law Society of England and Wales (2017), lower growth in the UK economy will more likely be reflected in lower growth in disposable incomes for households. It is projected that real disposable income for households will increase by a paltry 1.8% in 2018 and 2.2% in 2019 (The Law Society of England and Wales, 2017). These, together with relatively high house prices (and subsequently a ditch in housing
transactions), will likely lower growth in demand for legal services from the personal consumer sector.

Economic Growth

According to The Law Society (2016), the legal services sector has grown by an average of 3.3% every year for the last 10 years, even outstripping economic growth which has averaged 1.2%. Legal services net exports have grown by on average by 5.6% per annum over the past decade to reach £3.6 billion in 2016 (The Law Society 2016). Between 2014 and 2015, the total value of the legal services sector grew by 8% according to The Law
Society (2016). According to The Law Society of England and Wales (2017), growth in UK legal services sector between 2017 and 2018 will be modest with real turnover for 2020 reaching £30.82 billion as evidenced by figure 1. Between 2019 and 2020, it is projected that the sector will achieve growth rates of at least 2.7% per year.

Pestle Analysis Legal Services Industry UK

Fig. 1 UK legal services sector Forecasts  Source: The Law Society of England and Wales


There is a growing trend among UK nationals to try and reduce legal costs. In this regard, many potential clients seek to complete legal tasks on their own as a way of reducing overall costs. Many of them are unwilling to pay for information that is already easily available or documents that are traditionally made from scratch (Invicta, 2017). Although technology is a source of competitive advantage for firms providing legal services, it has also contributed to loss of business as clients have increased access to free legal information online. According to Invicta (2017), 80% of the population found ways of solving legal problems without having to secure the services of a lawyer. Many of them rely on blogs, portals, or cloud computing to access the legal information they require. Another trend among UK nationals is their preference for predictable fees when seeking legal services. This trend is prompted by the need to avoid paying exorbitant fees commonly witnessed when fees are billed hourly. 

Yet another social trend among UK nationals is their preference for companies that engage in ethical practices and invest in corporate social responsibility activities. A recent survey by the Chartered Institute of Marketing revealed that 81% of millenials (those aged 18-34) wish that companies commit to corporate social responsibility values publicly (Chartered Institute of Marketing, 2018). The study also revealed that 92% of millenials preferred to buy from companies that committed to ethical business practices. Yet again, the study revealed that 73% of millenials would not mind paying extra for sustainable offerings. Another study conducted by the Association of Accounting Technicians (AAT) revealed
that 70% of consumers have their purchasing decisions influenced by the ethical behaviour of a company (Association of Accounting Technicians, 2016). The study revealed that 43% or those surveyed counted tax avoidance as a vital factor in deciding whether or not to engage with a company. The study further revealed that other factors consumers consider important when choosing a company with which to engage include a strict ethical code
with respect to the company’s supply chain, maximum transparency with respect to company accounts, and being careful with sensitive customer information (Association of Accounting Technicians, 2016). These findings indicate that transparency, ethical practices, engaging in best practices, and corporate social responsibility have an impact on purchasing decisions and consumer loyalty.


Like in other sectors, technology is perceived to be a source of competitive advantage in the UK legal services sector. It is for this reason that players in this sector are seeking more relevant technologies for use in delivering services (Deloitte 2016). Law firms in the UK are fast adopting modern ways of doing business. Statistics show that over the years, use of ICT to procure or offer services has steadily grown among UK nationals (Office of
National Statistics, 2015). Some law firms in the UK are already going paperless as a way of reducing costs (Law Technology Today, 2015). The law firms are also using practice management software to schedule their activities and manage their resources for greater efficiency. As a way of reducing the risk of losing important information, many businesses
are opting to store their data on the Cloud (Law Technology Today, 2015). By backing up data on the cloud, businesses are assured of having their information back in the event that the printed or soft copies they have locally are intentionally or accidentally destroyed or lost.

The advent of social media has transformed the way business in the legal services industry market themselves and interact with current and potential customers. Many businesses in the sector today have an online presence both in the form of a website or on social media which help them reach and respond to clients’ needs in faster and more effectively. In general the Internet and social media have helped reduce the costs businesses have to occur in marketing their products and in communicating with clients and potential clients. They have also made communication more efficient and effective.

Many regulated law firms currently appreciate the importance of having an online presence through websites and social media. As a result, many legal firms already have websites and social media pages or are in the process of developing them. With the wide and growing use of mobile phones and Internet technologies, many legal firms are using or have already developed mobile applications. According to Kimtasso (2018), 24 percent of the top 300 law firms in the UK already have mobile applications on the public app stores. Some of the applications most used by law firms include client support apps, interactive tools, content marketing apps, event apps and general firm apps (Kimtasso, 2018).

According to the Office of National Statistics (2015), close to 93% of adults in the UK own and use a mobile phone, which means marketing, advertising and providing services using mobile applications and websites is likely to be effective in reaching potential clients. With many individuals, businesses and organisations expecting to receive services even outside traditional office hours, Do-it-Yourself (DIY) online solutions are more and more
gaining ground in the provision of certain legal services such as will writing and divorce (Solicitors Regulation Authority, 2014). Regulated lawyers note that the development of online services has greatly contributed to the growth of their businesses (Solicitors Regulation Authority, 2014). Statistics indicate that over the next five years, use of online legal services will increase from 28% to 37% even as 40% of consumers indicate that they are willing to use low cost online legal services given that they also offer convenience (Solicitors Regulation Authority, 2014).

Some of the technologies likely to disrupt the legal services sector in the UK include artificial intelligence, mobile applications and automated document management (Thompson, 2018). These technologies are perceived to be crucial investments for law firms as they have the potential to reduce costs and improve efficiency in service delivery in a market where the customers demand cheaper and faster legal services. Some of these technologies, especially artificial intelligence, are extremely expensive and may only be afforded by well-established legal firms with heavy financial muscle (Thompson, 2018).

According to Solicitors Regulation Authority (2014), technology firm IBM is currently working with several legal organisations to develop and improve several artificial intelligence applications for the legal profession. Although artificial intelligence applications have so far not found much use in the legal services sector currently, they have great promise and could easily attract great rewards for firms which pioneer in their usage. In view of the importance of technologies as a source of competitive advantage, legal firms such as Fenwick & Co. LLP need to adopt different technologies and communication tools that are increasingly becoming available.


According to some experts, Brexit will inevitably bring changes in the legal environment and will, therefore, create demand for advisory services across all areas of law for both private and corporate clients (Lexis Nexis, 2017). Compliance as an area of practice is likely to benefit from Brexit as companies and individuals engage in the process of adjusting to a new regulatory environment (Lexis Nexis, 2017). Some practice areas are,
however, likely to be negatively affected as law firms will face the difficult task of becoming ready for the implementation of Brexit (Lexis Nexis, 2017). According to some experts, corporate and M&A are some of the practice areas that may suffer moving forward due to Brexit as companies and individuals focus on divesting or relocating their operations to Europe in the wake of a changing economic climate (Lexis Nexis, 2017). Whether Brexit assumes a hard or soft shape, the process of adjusting to the environment is likely to be characterised by a long-term period of change.

With Brexit being a reality, there are concerns that UK lawyers may not be able to freely practice across European Union member states (Ullah, 2017). At the same time, there are concerns that it may affect the ability of law firms to recruit skilled staff from European Union countries. With possible restrictions on the recruitment of foreign talent occasioned by tougher immigration requirements, the legal services sector is likely to suffer short-term skills shortage which in turn may see a significant increase in labour costs and immigration-bureaucracy related costs for law firms (Lexis Nexis, 2017). In spite of these potential changes, the United Kingdom is likely to remain a leading destination for international businesses to carry out their legal affairs, more so given their preference for English Law, as well as due to the good reputation of the UK for its highly trained and
skilled English judges (Ullah, 2017). Considering these factors, law firms such as Fenwick & Co. LLP need to take active steps towards adjusting themselves in line with the dynamic policy environment characterised by Brexit.


In the UK, the commitment to engage in ethical practices and corporate social activities has emerged to be a sources of competitive advantage for companies as consumers tend to prefer the products of companies that publicly engage in such practices and activities (Association of Accounting Technicians, 2016; Chartered Institute of Marketing, 2018). On the other hand, businesses that are not committed to such practices and activities are
viewed more unfavourably by consumers. In the legal services sector, consumers view companies that offer a wide range of pro bono (free) legal advice with more favour than their counterparts that are only interested in making profits (
Slater Gordon, 2018). According to a recent study involving the top 100 law firms in England and Wales, companies that had lower ranking were more likely to be those that little engaged in CSR activities (University of Birmingham, 2017).

Conclusion and Recommendations

The UK has a stable political environment which is good for the business. While the implementation of Brexit is less likely to disrupt the political stability of the country, it has certainly brought a lot of uncertainty with regard to the future of the legal services industry. In this regard, law firms need to prepare themselves to quickly adapt to changes that may be brought about by Brexit. There are high possibilities, for example, that many foreign owned law firms may withdraw from the UK market which may effectively reduce competitive pressures on law firms owned by locals. At the same time, there are possibilities that the industry may lose a sizeable portion of its market if the UK implements tough immigration laws, effectively locking out many EU citizens from the UK.

  • The UK legal services industry has achieved steady growth (on average,
    3.3%) over the past decade. It is projected that the market will grow by 2.7%
    annually between 2019 and 2020 to achieve a value of £30.82 billion. These
    statistics indicate that the market promises growth for the industry and is,
    therefore, economically favourable for Fenwick & Co. LLP.
  • Given the political and economic situation of the UK currently, small law
    firms such as Fenwick & Co. LLP should put more effort in targeting
    organisations compared to individual consumers. This measure is informed by the fact that the UK is the jurisdiction of choice for many international
    organisations and remains the leading international centre for resolving
    disputes. The measure is also informed by the fact that projections show little growth in the demand for legal services from the personal consumer sector and increased demand for legal services from financial services going by past and current trends.
  • With many people preferring predictable legal fees so as to avoid exorbitant
    fees, Fenwick & Co. LLP should change its pricing structure from billing
    customers hourly to fixing more or less standard charges for every kind of
  • To appeal to more clients, the business should also engage in ethical practices and inexpensive corporate social activities such as providing some legal services free of charge. The company should also market itself as a company  that is extremely careful with sensitive customer information.
  • With many clients and potential clients seeking legal information and service providers online, Fenwick & Co. LLP should have in place a website and social media pages. The company should strongly market itself through social media and using mobile applications to reach a much wider audience than it is currently reaching. This is based on the fact that over 90% of adults in the UK own and use a mobile phone.
  • With a projected increase in demand for affordable, online legal services
    (from 28% to 37%), the company should produce and offer virtual and
    downloadable products and sell these online, through its website, in an
    automated process.
  • To reduce costs and improve efficiency, the company should go paperless by
    making use of technologies such as automated document management and
    practice management software. At the same time, the company should invest in cloud computing technologies to ensure the safety of its information. Yet again, the company should consider investing in artificial intelligence technologies which although extremely expensive, can afford it competitive advantage over other players in the market.

Association of Accounting Technicians (2016). Majority of consumers say purchasing decisions are influenced by ethical behaviour of company 12 September https://www.aat.org.uk/news/article/majority-consumers-say-purchasing-decisions-areinfluenced-ethical-behaviour-company

Chartered Institute of Marketing (2018). The case for CSR/ Sustainability Reporting Done Responsibly [online]. Available at: https://sustaincase.com/chartered-institute-ofmarketing-uk-millennials-love-csr/ [Accessed 22 June, 2018].

Deloitte (2016). Future Trends for Legal Services Global research study. London: Deloitte. [online]. Available at: https://www2.deloitte.com/content/dam/Deloitte/global/Documents/Legal/dttl-legal-futuretrends-for-legal-services.pdf [Accessed 22 June, 2018].

Invicta (2017). What will affect the solicitors’ profession in the next twelve months? [online]. Available at: https://invicta.law/insights/see-major-policy-legal-regulatory-issueslikely-affect-solicitors-profession-next-twelve-months/ [Accessed 22 June, 2018].

Kimtasso (2018). Legal market research – Mobile apps in law firms 2017[online]. Available at: http://www.kimtasso.com/mobile-apps-in-law-firms/ [Accessed 22 June, 2018].

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Lexis Nexis (2017). Law firms of the future—preparing for Brexit, [online]. Available at: https://blogs.lexisnexis.co.uk/futureoflaw/2017/10/law-firms-of-the-future-preparing-forbrexit/ [Accessed 22 June, 2018].

Office of National Statistics (2015). Internet Access – Households and Individuals: 2014. London: Office of National Statistics.

Slater Gordon (2018). Corporate Social Responsibility [online]. Available at:
https://www.slatergordon.co.uk/about-us/corporate-social-responsibility/ [Accessed 22 June, 2018].

Solicitors Regulation Authority (2014). Research and Analysis: The Changing Legal Services Market. London: Solicitors Regulation Authority [online]. Available at: http://www.sra.org.uk/risk/resources/changing-legal-services-market.page [Accessed 22 June 2018].

The City UK (2016a). The Impact of Brexit on the UK-based legal services sector, The City UK

The City UK (2016b). UK Legal Services 2016 [online]. Available at:
https://www.thecityuk.com/research/uk-legal-services-2016-report/ [Accessed 22 June, 2018].

The Law Society (2015). The EU and the Legal Sector. London: The Law Society of England and Wales.

The Law Society (2016). The Economic Value of the Legal Services Sector. London: The Law Society of England and Wales [online]. Available at:
http://www.lawsociety.org.uk/news/documents/legal-sector-economic-value-final-march-2016/ [Accessed 22 June, 2018].

The Law Society of England and Wales (2017). Legal services sector forecasts 2017-2025. London: The Law Society of England and Wales. [online]. Available at: https://www.lawsociety.org.uk/support-services/research-trends/legal-services-sectorforecasts-2017-25/ [Accessed 22 June, 2018].

Thompson B. (2018). Deloitte muscles in on legal services in UK. Financial Times. January 10 [online]. Available at: https://www.ft.com/content/fa38f3c8-f54a-11e7-88f7-5465a6ce1a00 [Accessed 22 June, 2018].

Ullah S (2017). The value of the UK’s legal services sector and its importance to the City’s economy [online]. Available at: http://colresearch.typepad.com/colresearch/2017/07/thevalue-of-the-uks-legal-services-sector-and-its-importance-to-the-citys-economy.html [Accessed 22 June, 2018].

University of Birmingham (2017). Large Law Firms and Corporate Social Responsibility [online]. Available at: https://www.birmingham.ac.uk/schools/law/research/spotlights/corporateresponsibility.aspx [Accessed 22 June, 2018].

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