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Expert & Opinion Evidence Law and Reliable Evidence

Question 1: Critically discuss whether the law governing expert and opinion evidence ensures that juries are presented with reliable evidence from professional witnesses.

There is no doubt that witnesses play a vital role in the legal process as they provide opinion or factual evidence. A court or jury may admit and rely on professional or expert evidence to decide a matter before it in some cases. Hackman, Raiit and Black (2016), define a professional witness as any person who owing to their direct professional involvement in the fact of a case, can present to a court an account of those facts. This essentially implies that a professional witness is a witness of fact who has professional qualification. Factual evidence from a professional witness is always admitted when the court has to decide on an issue whose facts are in question. Even so, a professional witness of fact may be asked by the court or an advocate to elucidate the reasoning underlying their actions or findings. Read More … (Expert and Opinion Evidence Law and Reliable Evidence from Professionals).

 

Question 2: “The provisions on bad character evidence introduced by the Criminal Justice Act 2003 merely ensure that the ‘usual suspects’ are at greater risk of conviction, and do little to serve the interests of justice”. Critically evaluate the extent to which this statement is accurate.

The Criminal Justice Act 2003 introduced far reaching changes to the admissibility of evidence in relation to character.  As noted by Tandy (2009), the Act abolished the common law rules that governed the admissibility of evidence of character in criminal cases. Before its enactment, the common law system was greatly reluctant to admit evidence of the criminal record of a defendant. The system was governed by the law on similar fact evidence as noted by Culberg (2009), and regulated by several cases including DPP v P [1991][1]. Read more

[1] DPP v P [1991] 2 AC 447

 

Harwell Zest Energy Drink

Assignment Brief:
Harwell group expresses their gratitude for the last advice you provided when they were venturing into the food and drinks business. Most of the useful advice given were taken on board and they are glad to announce that ‘Zest’, the canned energy drink is performing well in the market and gaining considerable market share within the competition. Again, Lewis and Rebecca have asked for your advice regarding their current investments going forward. Apart from the energy drink business, the other businesses (fashion, sports, events and fitness) have been in existence over 10 years and sales figures are beginning to fluctuate and perhaps dwindle. Particularly, the fashion business has been rescued twice by the sports business which appears to still be doing very well compared to others. In line with current trends, sales and marketing process systems for the entire group are about to be changed to a more responsive system which the IT department claims would enhance processing and delivery. Finally, on the new business (Zest), although, so far, market share has been increasing based on increasing sales figures, there is a need to sustain, and in fact increase this figure if the business would remain sustainable over the coming years – Harwell Zest Energy Drink.

Based on this information, Harwell group has asked for some thoughts and advice on the followings. Meanwhile, they also request that you reflect on your past advice as this may be useful in providing some fresh advice based on their current circumstances.
1. What stage of the product life cycle do you think the fashion business is currently at, based on its present circumstance? Please provide convincing justifications for your thoughts. Can you also advice on next steps?
2. Based on the strategic choices available to Harwell group, critically review a minimum of three strategic management models.
3. Advice on how consumers can become attached and remain loyal to ‘Zest’ over other energy drinks.
4. Provide three clear recommendations on how Harwell group can change its system and manage the change management process as effectively as possible and avoid disruptions to its current sales and marketing during the change process.
You are allowed to make reasonable assumptions stating clear reasons for these if you need to do so. –  Paper below.

Continue reading “Harwell Zest Energy Drink”

Harwell Energy Drink Business

Prompt: Harwell ltd. was established in 1974 in Scotland by Lewis and Rebecca Harwell. Their vision is to build a chain of companies within the Harwell group. Currently they have established four different companies which are up and running in various industries, they include: fashion, sports, events and fitness. Their most recent investment was in the IT industry but this eventually became unsuccessful. Lewis and Rebecca are now set to take on a new investment and the group’s net worth has recently been valued at £6.7 million. They plan to venture into the food and drinks industry particularly focusing on the production of canned energy drinks. Although this is a highly competitive sector of the food industry, they have both chosen this because of the increase in demand for energy drinks. Based on your knowledge of strategic position, Lewis and Rebecca have requested you carry out a thorough analysis on their new investment carefully considering the followings:

  1. The external business environment and how this may influence the new investment
  2. Competitive/market forces that would impact this business both positively and negatively
  3. What marketing/penetration strategies do you think can be implemented to boost the market share of this product, hence increasing sales and profit margins
  4. Critically analyse the marketing mix and suggest the most appropriate marketing mix for this product.

Hint: Your advice should be mainly based on key strategic theories and frameworks. You are allowed to make reasonable assumptions stating clear reasons for these if you need to do so –  Harwell energy drink business –Harwell Group Investment in Energy Drink Business (below).

Harwell Group Investment in Energy Drink Business

Introduction

Deciding on whether or not to venture into a particular business is an important strategic decision. Careful consideration guided by a thorough analysis of different factors should be done before making such a complex decision. An analysis of the internal (where relevant) and external business environments should be done to help decide whether or not it is worth venturing into the new business. It is a fact that the external business environment greatly affects the chances of a business succeeding in a given industry or market. It is also important the investor evaluates the competitive forces, penetration strategies, and market mix to be applied by their business as these also greatly affect the chances of the business’ success.  Against this background, the Harwell Group which is considering the option of venturing into the energy drinks business in the United Kingdom should analyse the external business environment and competitive forces in relation to the energy drinks market before deciding on whether or not to invest in this business. This paper analyses the external business environment in relation to the energy drinks market in the UK through a pestle analysis. A pestle or pestle analysis basically evaluates the political economic, social, technological, legal and environmental factors that make up the business environment (Kayumi 2014). A pestle analysis is chosen in this case considering its capacity to assess the prevailing business environment and changes that can potentially affect it (Kayumi 2014). In addition, the paper will analyse the competitive environment in relation to the energy drinks market. Based on the results of these analyses, recommendations will be made on whether Harwell Group should go ahead and invest in the energy drinks business, the most appropriate penetration strategy, and the best marketing mix to apply.

External Business Environment (Pestle Analysis)

Political

Given that Harwell Group is based in Scotland, it is subject to the political environment of the United Kingdom as a nation. The UK has enjoyed political stability for a long time and is governed by the rule of law and with respect for democracy. The political environment of the nation is such that … Read More.  

Contents

  • Introduction
  • External Business Environment (Pestle Analysis of the energy drinks market/industry)
  • Competitive/ Market Forces
  • Marketing/Penetration Strategies
  • Marketing Mix
  • Conclusion

Keywords: Harwell external business environment, Harwell Competitive forces, Harwell  market forces, Harwell Marketing Strategies, Harwell Penetration Strategies, Harwell Marketing Mix, Harwell Energy Drinks. 

Harwell Energy Drinks Business

Nike Supply Chain Time-Based Competition (TBC)

Nike Supply Chain Time-Based Competition (TBC)

Introduction

Nike is multinational company that designs, develops, manufactures, and markets sports equipment, footwear, clothes, and accessories. The company was established in 1964 and has over the years grown to into a strong international brand (Success Story 2019). Nike’s success in the last couple of years has, in part, been linked to the changes it has made to its systems and its revolutionary approach to manufacturing and product distribution. Some of the changes made to the company’s manufacturing processes, systems, and supply chain management have enabled Nike achieve time-based competitiveness. Dempsey et al. (2014) define time-based competition (TBC) as the strategic advantage gained from making the order-to-delivery cycle more compact, efficient, and cost effective for both the supplier and the consumer.

Nike Supply Chain Time-Based Competition

In other words, time based competition seeks to reduce the time required to propose, design, develop, manufacture and deliver products (Blackburn 2012). As noted by Olah et al. (2018), time-based competition (TBC) essentially involves the use of time (vis-a-vis cost) as the main factor for achieving and maintaining competitive advantage – Nike Supply Chain Time-Based Competition.

Nike and Time-Based Competition

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p style=”text-align: justify;”>With respect to time-based competition, Nike has succeeded in significantly lowering the amount of time it needs to manufacture its shoe products from as much as 18 weeks to only a few days. According to Bain (2017), this it has achieved by reducing the number of steps ordinarily involved in manufacturing shoes from design to prototype development ready for production. Ordinarily, the company would have to develop or produce several patterns, moulds, samples, and prototypes before commencing actual production. However, the company has reduced these numbers by relying on technologies such as Computer Aided Design (CAD), 3-dimensional imaging, and simulation. These technologies enable the company bypass some of these time consuming stages in the process of developing products (Huang 2016; Bain 2017). In addition, the company applies several innovative technologies as part of its manufacturing processes, which enable it produce several products within a much shorter duration. Read more

Change Management at General Electric

Change Management at General Electric

Introduction

General Electric (GE) has experienced a lot of changes in its structure and in the way it operates over the past several years. Many of the changes that the company applied in some way affected its employees, culture, and structure. This paper focuses on change management at General Electric during the tenure of Jeff Immelt as the company’s CEO and chairman. The paper first provides a brief background about GE before discussing leadership, culture, structure, and change management issues. The paper concludes by presenting recommendations for future action.

Background

General Electric is a multinational company established in 1892 with its headquarters in Boston, Massachusetts. The company involves in different industries including automotive, research, energy, transportation, engineering, aviation, healthcare, information technology, and finance (General Electric 2016).  In 2017, the company was ranked the thirteenth largest company in the U.S. based on gross revenue. Some of the products and services offered by the company include lighting, drug discovery, medical imaging devices, providing digital solutions, energy connections, liquefied natural gas, and aircraft engines (Google Finance 2017). The mission of General Electric is to build, power, move and cure the world by transforming industry with software-defined machines and solutions that are not only connected but also predictive and responsive (General Electric 2016).  

The company boasts of operating in 130 countries, has a presence in all the six continents, and has a workforce estimated at 304,000 employees (General Electric 2017). Among several other countries, the company operates in Canada, the United States, Australia, UAE, the UK, South Africa, Nigeria, China, Russia, Malaysia, Thailand and India. Ever since its establishment, GE has enjoyed significant growth to become the global force it is today, investing in and divesting different businesses in line with its strategic goals …

Rees and Hall (2013) note that change management involves defining, adopting corporate strategies, technologies, procedures and structures to deal with changes in the external business environment. Several theories on change management have been postulated by different experts. One such theory is Lewin’s Change Management Model . Read more … 

Change Management at General Electric

Contents:

  • Introduction
  • Changes and Change Management at General Electric
  • Conclusion

Assignment Prompt: Present an analysis of General Electric, focusing upon the structural, cultural, leadership and change management issues associated with any significant change experienced in the recent past (or anticipated in the near future) and to present practical recommendations. The following should be covered in your assignment: (a) Background: Identification of management of change situation and the context; this will include only a very brief background to the organization, its product/service, location, employment, business strategy and goals being pursued (b) Analysis and discussion of change management, structure, culture and leadership issues. This is the most important part of the assignment. You will need here to blend in relevant concepts and frameworks from the course. However, do not ‘mechanically’ outline and apply them: try to draw upon ideas from the course as you develop and progress your analysis (c) Conclusions and any recommendations for change, improvement and/or learning that follow from your analysis and discussion. Your answer should focus upon one or more particular change initiatives. 

 

Best Custom Writing Service

How to Choose the Best Custom Writing Service

Writing an essay requires a considerable amount of skill, knowledge, effort and time. Because of lack of time, knowledge, or skill, students sometimes need help to write high quality essays. A lot of this help comes from online essay writers, tutors, or essay writing services. With so many custom writing services on the Internet, you need to be careful when choosing the service to rely on. While some writing services have a lot of promises they lack the capacity to deliver high quality work and therefore cannot fulfill these promises. Other essay writing help services have prices that are way too high for students. Yet others cannot deliver high quality services within the deadlines they promise. When you need essay writing help, you naturally want to rely on the best essay writing service. Choosing the best custom writing service can be difficult. However, there are some things that the best essay writing services display which you should look out for when faced with a need for essay writing help.

Best Custom Writing Service

Characteristics of the Best Essay Writing Service 

One of the things that you should look out for when selecting an essay help service is their level of education of their writers. When you need essay help for your master degree essay, you definitely need a master level writer or a PhD level writer, not a high school writer. You should therefore choose a service that has master level and PhD level writers as they understand what writing at these levels require. Another important thing that you should look for is their ability to properly format documents using different academic styles such as APA, Harvard, Chicago, Oscola, or Oxford. If you rely on a service that cannot properly format research documents, you will probably lose valuable marks. Another thing you should look out for is the pricing of services. While you want high quality custom writing help, you do not want to spend an unreasonably high amount of money. A good custom writing service should therefore be affordable. You will be surprised that some of the best assignment help services are not so much known to students. This is because many students do not really take their time to search for the best service. A look at what past customers say (customer reviews) about the custom writing service is a good way to find the best essay helper. A services that has a lot of positive reviews is likely to be a good one.

Best Assignment Help UK

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p style=”text-align: justify;”>In summary, you need the best assignment help whenever you are stuck with a research paper, project, dissertation, or term paper. In this case you need a cheap essay writing service that has master level and PhD level writers, one that is able to properly format your documents, and one with good customer service and can deliver within deadline. For the best assignment help UK or the best essay writing service UK choose Freelansas.

We throw a ball upwards. Its height h (in meters)

Applied Calculus Questions and Solutions

We throw a ball upwards. Its height h (in meters), t seconds after its launch is given by the following equation

h(t) = –t2 +50t+1

  • Find the initial height of the ball. Round your answer to 4 decimals if needed and show your calculations. Use the correct notation.
  • Find at what time the speed of the ball is zero and find the height of the ball at this moment. Round your answer to 4 decimals if needed and show your calculations. Use the correct notation.
  • Use the derivative to find the speed of the ball precisely when it will touch the ground after its launch. Round your answer to 4 decimals if needed and show your calculations. Use the correct notation.
  • Calculate the speed and the acceleration of the ball 3 seconds after its launch. Round your answer to 4 decimals if needed and show your calculations. Use the correct notation.
  • Interpret the results of c in the context of the problem. You must write an interpretation ….

We throw a ball upwards. Its height h (in meters)

Solutions

a) Initial height of the ball

Initial height is when time t = 0

h(t) = –t2 +50t+1

h = -02 +50 x 0+1 = 1

h = 1 meter

b) Time at which speed of the ball is zero, and height of the ball at this moment

Speed s = …..

Solutions: t = 25 seconds, h = 626 meters

Find all worked out (well explained) solutions  to the above questions. 

(e): Interpretation for question c:

In this case, time cannot be negative and so the negative root of the quadratic equation does not apply. Negative speed indicates the ball is moving downwards (and not upwards as was the case when the ball started moving). The acceleration of the ball is constant from start to finish. 

Digital Marketing Zara Case Study

Digital Marketing Zara | Zara Digital Marketing – Case Study/Report

Introduction

Zara is an international fashion company that produces and markets different kinds of apparel. The company, whose headquarters is in Arteixo, Spain, was established in 1975. Today, Zara is known to be one of the world’s largest fashion and apparel retailers (Roll, 2019). The company has a presence in close to 96 countries in different parts of the world and owns close to 2,238 stores in these countries (Hanbury (2018). The company retails a wide variety of products including shoes, bags, perfumes, and clothes. Most of these products are made by different suppliers and are then transferred to the headquarters of Zara for branding (Hanbury, 2018). Given that it has customers spread across the globe, the company needs to find ways of interacting with its clients to understand their needs and views regarding its products and services. In this regard, the company exploits digital marketing to communicate with current and potential customers and to maintain a strong brand name. This report discusses how Zara applies digital marketing to engage with its current and potential customers.

Digital Marketing Zara

 

 

 

 

 

Customer Engagement

In today’s highly competitive business environment, the importance of customer engagement cannot be overstated. Retailers must hence change their approach to marketing from linear (involving one-way communication) to one that involves two-way mutual dialogue and the sharing of benefits between the organisation and the consumer (Fuxman et al., 2014; Karimova 2011). This implies that communication and engagement between the company and the consumer should flow freely and should be more non-linear. Such communication and engagement should be one-on-one, one-to-many, or both depending on the situation. Rihan (2017) notes that in the current world, consumers are more and more getting online to research about products, find deals and promotions, and compare prices before deciding making their purchasing decisions. Given this reality, it is only wise for firms to have an online presence and to engage in online marketing which, compared to traditional marketing, is often cheaper … 

Zara engages in several digital marketing activities as part of its market communication endeavours. The company owns several websites, which play an important role in giving it the continuous web presence that it needs while giving customers and consumers the opportunity to brows the products that the company has on offer (Appendix 1). Zara  has… facebook pages … Twitter accounts … with each account having a huge following. Read more

Contents for this article:

  • Introduction
  • Customer Engagement
  • Berlo’s Model of Communication
  • Digital Marketing
  • Digital Marketing at Zara
  • Recommendations
  • References
  • Appendices

Prompt: Choose one company from the retail industry and critically analyse how they use Digital Marketing to engage with their customers. Using appropriate theory recommend how they can improve their online engagement in the future. – Digital marketing Zara,  Zara digital marketing, digital marketing report example.

     

 

Main Features of Haier’s Internationalization Strategy

What are the main features of Haier’s internationalization strategy since early 1990s and how does it differ from the pattern of international typical of Western enterprises? How successful has Haier’s internationalization strategy been and why? What are the principal features of Haier’s management system? In what ways do Haier’s principles and methods of management differ from those deployed by Western companies? What lessons might be drawn by a) other Chinese companies and b) by Western enterprises? – Haier Group Internationalization Strategy and Management System (below).

Key text: Grant, R (2016). Contemporary Strategy Analysis.

Haier Group Internationalization Strategy

Haier Group’s Internationalization Strategy and Management System

Introduction

Haier Group is a multinational company that manufactures and markets home appliances and consumer electronic products. Simply referred to as Haier, the group started off as a small bankrupt company called Qingdao General Refrigerator Factory before growing to become a global leader in the production of house hold appliances. Today, the company markets its products in well over 100 countries across the world (Haier UK 2014). While the company has its global headquarters in Qingdao China, it has a number of regional headquarters (including Paris and New York) to serve its clients in the respective regions. There is wide agreement among business experts and scholars that Zhang Rumin contributed greatly to the growth and success of Haier. As CEO of the company, Zhang saw the company transform from the bankrupt Qingdao General Refrigerator Factory to the highly successful and leading brand that it is today. Under his leadership, the company focused on producing high quality products and began applying a management system that was customer centric with product development focusing greatly on fulfilling consumers’ needs. The company also began and greatly advanced its internationalisation journey under Zhang’s leadership. Haier’s internationalisation strategy and management methods have been a subject of great praise and admiration worldwide given their contributions to the Group’s success. However, they have also been criticised by pundits who feel that the strategy was not as orderly and not as integrated as it should have been. Questions have also been raised regarding the cohesiveness of the strategy and its rationale especially considering its uneven performance in different markets. These criticisms notwithstanding, there is wide consensus that the strategy was a success and that it presents important lessons for companies that wish to internationalise. This paper discusses Haier’s internationalisation strategy and the Group’s management system as established by Zhang Rumin. More specifically, the paper answers the questions: What are the main features of Haier’s internationalization strategy since early 1990s and how does it differ from the pattern of international development typical of Western enterprises? How successful has Haier’s internationalization strategy been and why? What are the principal features of Haier’s management system? In what ways do Haier’s principles and methods of management differ from those deployed by Western companies? What lessons might be drawn by a) other Chinese companies and b) by Western enterprises?

The Main Features of Haier’s Internationalization Strategy and How the Strategy Differs From the Pattern of International Development Typical of Western Enterprises

Companies can expand beyond national markets through internationalisation. An internationalisation strategy is basically the strategy that a firm applies to sell its products in foreign markets. It involves applying one or more modes of international business (Chryssochoidis and Clegg 1997). Some of the modes of international business include exporting, licensing, franchising, partnering or strategic alliance, acquisition, establishing new, wholly owned subsidiary, and joint venture (Shaker et al. 2000; Azuayi 2016).  In different situations, Haier applied different modes of international business. To enter the U.S. market, for example, the company initially exported manufactured products to the country and relied on a strategic partner (Wellbilt Appliances) to distribute the products. To market its products in the Netherlands, Germany, and Italy, the company exported its products under the Haier brand (Grant 2016). In countries such as Malaysia, Indonesia, and Philippines, the company formed joint ventures with local companies and relied on them to produce and sell products such as refrigerators and air conditioners (Grant 2016). For Haier, the goal behind its internationalisation was to build a global brand and to become an internationally competitive brand, rather than merely to exploit China’s low manufacturing costs (Grant 2016). In addition, the company sought to create the famous brand of China in the world through its internationalisation. Furthermore, it was aimed at challenging the company to raise to word-class level its standards of marketing, customer service, manufacturing, and product development (Grant 2016). The internationalisation strategy applied by Haier had certain key features which will be discussed in the following sections. Read more

One key feature of Haier’s Internationalisation strategy was its focus on entering and tackling difficult or more sophisticated markets first before tackling easy or less developed ones. As noted by Yan and Guanli (2011), in the process of internationalisation, companies have two modes or options. Read entire paper

Contents

  • Introduction
  • The Main Features of Haier’s Internationalization Strategy and How the Strategy Differs From the Pattern of International Development Typical of Western Enterprises
  • The Uppsala Model in Relation to Haier’s Internationalisation Strategy
  • The Success of Haier’s Internationalization Strategy
  • Principal Features of Haier’s Management System
  • Haier’s Principles and Methods of Management
  • Lessons that can be Learnt from Haier
  • Conclusion
  • References

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Companies Aware of the Need for Relation-oriented Skills

Companies Aware of the Need for Relation-oriented SkillsSolved: ‘Companies are becoming increasingly aware of the need for relation-oriented skills in their global endeavours. Female managers working for Western companies, for example, could generally be regarded as potentially effective managers in say, Asia because of their person-oriented leadership skills. The consideration women show others, as well as their ability to empathise, are features that are said to be held in high esteem in that part of the world. Why do you think that some multinationals nevertheless tend not to give serious consideration to female candidates for managerial positions in, for example, the Middle East?’ (Browaeys and Price 2015, p. 233). Critically discuss, referring to relevant research and supporting your answer with examples from international business.  Companies Aware of the Need for Relation-oriented Skills: Cross-cultural management. 

Why Some Multinationals Do Not to Give Serious Consideration to Female Candidates for Managerial Positions

Introduction  

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p style=”text-align: justify;”>Every business organisation seeks to grow or improve its performance and appreciate that without good leadership, this goal may not be achievable (Law 2015). Owing to this fact, companies are constantly looking out for people who seem to have leadership and management skills and who will hopefully propel the organisation in the right direction. High performing leaders are people who can develop and implement good strategies, ensure tasks are properly performed and done in a timely manner, and can establish and maintain relationships across the organisation. As noted by Law (2015), business leaders or managers can apply relationship-oriented leadership or task-oriented leadership to achieve desired organisational goals. In the contemporary business environment, relationship-oriented leadership is valued given its emphasis on creating relationships that last between the leader and other workers. In this regard, this kind of leadership helps avoid limitations commonly linked with authoritarian leadership such as poor employee motivation (Oni 2017). Relationship-oriented leadership has been closely linked to feminine qualities and as such is commonly preferred in positions in which a lot of cooperation, use of intuition, communication, and flexibility is demanded. There is no doubt that this kind of approach to leadership is practical and vital in business. Even so, some multinational organisations do not give serious consideration for having women, who naturally tend to apply relationship-oriented leadership, to occupy management positions in some countries. In this paper, the possible reasons for this situation is discussed based on Hofstede’s theory and more especially with a focus on the cultural dimensions of power distance, uncertainty avoidance, and masculinity versus femininity. The paper begins by discussing task-oriented and relationship-oriented leadership before discussing the main issue which is the reason for gender segregation in business management. The paper concludes with recommendations for businesses and women. Read more