First Response and Emergency Care Component 2

First Response and Emergency Care Component 2 – Revision Notes/Questions

Q. Briefly explain the functions of the following components of the respiratory system: lung, diaphragm, intercostal muscles, parietal pleura, visceral pleura, and pleural cavity. 

Q. Explain the ‘cycle of breathing’

Q. Define “elasticity” and explain the effects it has on the lungs when reduced.

Q. Define “compliance” and explain the effects it has on the lungs when reduced.

Q. Define “airway resistance” and explain the effects it has on the lungs when reduced.

Q. A man has been hit by a car and you have been called to attend to him. He seems to be unconscious. His breathing is fast and shallow and he has a weak radial pulse. Your inspection of the casualty reveals that the left side of his chest is not rising and falling equally. There is no sign of catastrophic haemorrhage, his circulation is compromised, and there is a snoring sound emanating from his airway. Suggest a treatment plan for the casualty that includes scene consideration and additional resources, assessment and management of the patient, and his transport to definitive care.

Q. Label the bones on the diagram:

First Response and Emergency Care

Q. What are the functions of bone?

Q. What are the functions of muscle?

Q. What are the functions of tendons?

Q. What are the functions of ligaments?

Q. What are the functions of joints?

 

Q. What are the two main components of the central nervous system (CNS)?

Q. What are the functions of the Central Nervous System (CNS)?

Q. What are the functions of the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)?

Q. Define sexual assault.

Q. A patient whose has experienced sexual assault may experience different signs, symptoms and issues. Name some of the signs, symptoms, and issues, categorising them as either physiological or psychological.

Q. You have been called to attend to a female patient who seems to have been sexually assaulted. Briefly discuss the considerations needed to care for the patient. In your discussion, ensure to touch on the following issues: the assessment of time critical injuries, forensic considerations, approach towards the patient, communications with the patient, patient’s wishes with regard to contacting the police, and care pathways (Sexual Assault Referral Centre).

Q. What are the roles of the following crew members when attending to a major incident: attendant, driver, first crew on scene, and first responder on scene?

Q. What is triage (focus on treatment of patients, recording of findings, and special considerations for children)?

Q. Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear and Explosive (CBRNE) incidents can have several effects. For each of the elements of CBRNE, state the routes of entry and the possible effects that should be considered.

Q. You have been called to attend to a situation in a public area that is heavily populated. A member of the public tells you that there is a rucksack that has been left unattended for an hour or so. Provide a summary of how you will initially deal with the package and how you will act when the situation is considered a terrorist incident. State what “METHANE” stands for and provide details that you would include in your “METHANE” report.

Q. Briefly describe how you would manage a patient with traumatic chest injuries with a focus on open chest wound, pneumothorax, tension pneumothorax, haemothorax, and flail chest.

Q. An explosion has occurred in an event or ceremony in which roughly 2,600 people are in attendance. As a result of the explosion that has occurred in the refreshment zone, the Senior Officer on scene has declared the situation to be a major incident. What is a major incident and what are its four stages?

Find attempted solutions to these First Response and Emergency Care – Component 2 revision questions here

The Role of Cost Information in the Pricing Decision

Pricing Decisions: The Role of Cost Information In the Pricing Decision

Prompt:

The Role of Cost Information in the Pricing DecisionYou are working in the management accounting department of ABC which manufactures a range of consumer electronics products. The current range comprises 50 different products and the company launches around 10 new products every year.

Your manager has asked you to write a paper which addresses issues relating to pricing decisions for all the company’s products, with a particular focus on the prices set for new products.

The current approach used by the company is a cost based approach by which a predetermined percentage is added to the estimated full cost of the product. However the directors of the company have recently questioned this approach.

You are required to discuss the following in your paper:

  • The role of cost information in the pricing decision.
  • The advantages and limitations of the company’s current approach.
  • A range of alternative strategies for pricing products which could be adopted by the company, including a discussion of the circumstances for which the different strategies would be appropriate.

Discussions have been taking place within the company concerning the pricing of one of the products to be launched within the next three months. The current planned selling price is £60 per unit and at this price it is expected that 5,000 units will be sold over the next year. However the marketing director has suggested that the sales quantity and profits from this product could be increased by reducing the unit selling price. The production director disagrees and believes that the selling price would have to be increased to improve the level of the profit.

You are required to:

  • Analyse the relationship between selling price and the level of profit for this product based on the information provided in this briefing.
  • Within your paper, present your analysis in an appropriate format. This analysis should include an appropriate chart or charts as an integral part of your paper.
  • Provide a full commentary on your analysis. This discussion should include the assumptions in and the limitations of your approach, a discussion of the views of the two directors related to the conclusions of your analysis and an assessment of the relevance to the organisation’s pricing decisions in the light of your answer to part a).

Note: you should use a spreadsheet for the calculations which underpin the analysis presented in the paper. Your spreadsheet must be submitted to support your paper.

Additional information:

The company estimates product costs based on apportionment of overheads to products using labour hours. Prices set are based on full cost plus a 25% profit mark-up.

The following information relates to this product:

  • The manufacture of each unit of the product requires materials costing £24 and 30 minutes of direct labour at a rate of £25 per hour.
  • The variable overhead costs per unit are £5.50 per unit.
  • Fixed costs for the year to be apportioned to this product are expected to be:
  • Production costs: £24,000
  • Administration and management costs: £5,000
  • Selling costs: £1,000
  • Some market research has recently been carried out to try and determine the effect on the level of sales demand if changes were made to the selling price of the product. This market research has suggested that reducing the selling price to £57 would increase the sales volume to 5,250 units for the year whereas increasing the selling price to £63 would result in a fall in sales to 4,750 units during the same period.

Assessment criteria
(10%)  Discussion of the importance of cost information for pricing
(10%)  Discussion of the advantages and limitations of the company’s current approach.
(25%)  Review of alternative strategies for pricing products.
(10%)  Analysis of scenario
(25%)  Commentary on spreadsheet analysis and presentation of results.      
(10%)  Effective communication and appropriate style of presentation.
(10%)  Use and presentation of academic research to support arguments.

Pricing Decisions

The role of cost information in the pricing decision

Cost is one of the factors that affect pricing decisions, hence cost information is an important factor in coming up with pricing decisions (University of Minnesota, 2015). Costs can influence prices through its effect on supply. In this regard, a company will be willing to supply more products the more the cost is lower relative to the price. It is often the case that as the firm increases supply of a product, the cost of producing an additional unit initially decreases. However, a point is reached where the cost of producing an additional unit begins to rise. The company will be willing to continue to supply its products for as long as the profit it makes from selling extra units exceeds the cost of producing them (the extra units). Another way that costs influence pricing is that all the costs incurred by the firm should be recouped through its product sales (Meehan et al., 2011; Smith, 2011). This means that the higher the units of a product that a firm sells, the less each unit is required to contribute towards covering the fixed costs. This in turn implies that the firm can afford to set a lower price for its products if it applies a cost-based approach to pricing or can make higher profits if applies value-based pricing (Leijon, 2017). It is by understanding the cost of producing the products that companies can set product prices so that they (the prices) appeal to consumers and at the same time serve to maximize operating income (Tarjomefa, 2015). Continue reading

Nitrogen Balance Experiment Urine

Nitrogen Balance Experiment Using Simulated Urine Samples. Lab report results.
Attempted solutions for the following questions:
For this assay, you were asked to dilute your samples. Please explain in your own words why you think you were asked to do this.

You were also asked to make your own standards from a stock solution of 1mg/ml. Please indicate the amounts of stock solution and water you added to make 10mls of each of your own standards.

 

Blank

0.25mg/ml

0.5mg/ml

0.75 mg/ml

1 mg/ml

Stock soln (ml)

Provided

       

Water (ml)

Provided

       

Calculate the average reading for each duplicate pair. You may find that one of the duplicate pair is not a good reading and may decide to leave that reading out. Discuss this with a demonstrator and outline in the tables below which sample you excluded and why.

Nitrogen Balance Experiment Urine

From the absorbance you measured from your standards, graph using a scatter plot.

Once you have done so, attempt to fit a straight line through the standards. Are there any values skewing the line? Is the trendline showing a good fit with your experimental data?

Now using the result for the trendline from MS excel, report the equation and the R2 value

Once you have made the graph, determine the concentrations of the samples in the following 2 ways.

Use the equation given on your graphs (y = mx + c) calculate the concentrations of the unknowns.

 ** At this point – remember that you diluted your samples 1:20, so this means to get the ‘correct’ concentration you will need to multiply the concentration from the graph x 20.

 

Sample A

Sample B

Sample C

Equation from graph

     

Equation from graph x 20

     

The samples you used for these assays came from a simulated 24 hour urine sample.

You have determined the concentration of urea in mg/ml. You will now need to convert that to total amount in the 24 hour urine, which was 2L.

So the total amount loss per day is amount calculated as x/ml  × 2000 (i.e. 2000ml per 2L 24h urine sample)

 

Sample A

Sample B

Sample C

Equation from graph (mg/ml)

     

Equation from graph x 20 (mg/ml)

     

Total amount loss per day (mg/day)

     

Total amount loss per day (g/day)

     

Once you have calculated the concentration of each sample, think about which sample may apply to which of the following subjects.

What do abnormal results mean?

Complete the table and give your reasons below:

 

Description

24h urine vol

Subject weight kg

Which Sample?

Subject A

Healthy vegetarian subject consuming 35g dietary protein per day

2000 ml

65

 

Subject B

Obese subject undergoing therapeutic fast. 24 h urine sample from day 5 of fast

2000 ml

90

 

Subject C

Healthy football player, consuming 75 g protein per day

2000 ml

80

 

Explain your choices:

Find attempted solution…. 

Central Traits Primacy Effect and Recency Effect

Assignment prompt:

  1. Explain the concepts of central traits, primacy effect and recency effect and their importance in the formation of attitudes.
  2. Define stereotyping and explain the possible cognitive and social functions of stereotyping.
  3. Outline theories of attitude formation and stereotyping.
  4. What is the difference between prejudice and discrimination and how is stereotyping involved in their development?
  5. Outline and critically evaluate two theories of the causes of prejudice and discrimination.

Explain the concepts of ‘central traits, primacy effect and recency effect’ and their importance in the formation of attitudes.

Based on the results of his study on personality, Gordon Allport grouped personality traits into three main categories; cardinal traits, central traits and secondary traits (Harvard University, 2021). Allport believed that traits make up the basic unit of the person’s personality and defined traits as the predisposition to respond and react in the same way to stimuli in the environment (Niwlikar, 2022). According to Allport’s theory of personality, cardinal traits are those traits that dominate an individual’s personality. These traits are at the top of the traits hierarchy and are the main controller of a person’s personality such that a person may be known for those traits only. As an example, Mahatma Gandhi is known for his honesty, Mother Theresa for altruism or kindness, and Adolf Hitler for being a ruthless dictator.

Secondary traits, which are at the base of Allport’s traits hierarchy, are present in all people and can influence behaviour. However, these traits are only expressed in certain situations or circumstances and are dependent upon immediate context (Niwlikar, 2022). On their part, central traits, which are in the middle of the hierarchy are general characteristics based on which personalities are formed. While they are not as dominating as the cardinal traits, they are the main characteristics that are used by people to describe other people.  All people have varying levels of central traits and these traits influence but do not determine a person’s behaviour.

According to Troyer (2011), the primacy effect is the tendency for individuals to recall information presented first (or at the beginning of a list) compared to information received earlier on (or in the middle of the list). On its part, the recency effect is the tendency by people to recall more clearly the information received most recently (Morrison et al., 2014). The primacy effect explains why people tend to be able to recall information that they received first. Experts believe that the information people receive first is given pre-eminence over that received subsequently. Continue reading

 

Nationalism and the Modern State

Nationalism has been defined by Breuilly (2001) as political movements that seek or exercise state power and justify their actions based on nationalist arguments. It has also been defined by Hutchinson and Smith (1994) as an ideology based on the premise that a person’s commitment and loyalty to the nation state supersedes other personal or group interests. According to Breuilly (2001), three main assertions are ascribed to nationalism. The first claim is that a nation exists if it has a well-defined and distinctive personality. The second assumption is that the nation’s interests and values take precedence above those of the individual and organizations. The final assertion is that the nation must be as free as possible from the domination of other nations, governments, or entities.

Many scholars agree that there is a strong link between nationalism and the modern state (Conversi, 2012; Vincent 2010). The concept of “modern state” is fraught with dispute. Critics have condemned as insufficient the usual definition of the modern state as a human society that only claims the legal use of force inside a specified territory (Morris n.d.). Critics point out that if this definition is adopted holistically, then criminal organizations, the Roman civitas, and the Greek poleis would qualify as modern states, which is obviously absurd. Morris (n.d., p.200) defines a modern state as a political organization occupying a distinctively shaped region that asserts sovereignty over its domains and independence from other states. Scholars do not generally agree on whether the modern state is a product of nationalism or nationalism is a product of the modern state. This paper seeks to answer the question: Is nationalism a product of the modern state, or was the modern state produced by nationalism?

Many historians observe that the modern state emerged in Europe between the 15th and 18th centuries and extended to other regions of the world through colonialism and conquest (CQ Press 2015). Continue reading …

Challenges Facing Psychiatric, Toxicological Expertise

Prompt: Compare and contrast the challenges facing psychiatric & toxicological expertise in the nineteenth century “Adversarial Courtroom”, and the strategies they adopted to legitimate their knowledge. 

The involvement of experts in courts to provide expert testimony is not a new practice. As far back as the Middle Ages, physicians, sea captains, and other experts have been called on to help or testify in English courts when the facts of the case were so complicated that the judge or jury did not have adequate knowledge to make a decision (Essig 2002). Before the 18th century, judges and juries actively took part in gathering and presenting evidence, and experts often served as official advisors to courts or juries. When the legal system underwent the adversarial revolution in the 18th century, however, this situation changed as judges and juries took on more passive and neutral roles in the collection and presentation of evidence. Consequently, litigants took active charge of gathering and presenting evidence in a structured forensic setting (Essig 2002). This change saw the role of experts in courts change from being (impartial) court advisors or members of the jury to being partisan witnesses (Eigen 1995; Watson, 2006). In their roles as partisan witnesses, the experts faced a myriad of challenges which they sought to overcome through different means. This paper seeks to compare and contrast the challenges facing psychiatric and toxicological expertise in the nineteenth century “Adversarial Courtroom”, and the strategies they adopted to legitimate their knowledge.

One of the challenges faced by toxicological expertise in the adversarial court in the 1800s was to do with the transfer of knowledge from the laboratory to the courtroom. In an adversarial system, it was the norm that all expert testimony would be met with contradictions that had the potential to damaged the image of the professions that the expert witnesses represented. On the witness stand, toxicologists, psychiatrists and indeed other experts presented evidence that (scientifically) contradicted those presented by the opposing side. The effect of this was that the public developed serious doubts about the integrity of the expert witnesses and the science they professed.  In some cases, the toxicologists, physicians, and psychiatrists, in their positions as expert witnesses, were accused of   being incompetent or corrupt. In response to these accusations, the expert witnesses often cited their credibility.

In Mary Fleming’s murder trial that took place in 1896, for example, her lawyers questioned the reputation of a German chemist by the name Walter Scheele (Essig 2002). continue reading …

Challenges Facing Psychiatric & Toxicological Expertise …

Richard Branson and the Virgin Group Case Study

Richard Branson and the Virgin Group Case Study

Richard Branson and the Virgin Group Case Study1. What common resources and capabilities link the separate Virgin companies? (30%)
2. Which business if any should Branson consider divesting? What criteria should he use in deciding what new diversification strategy to pursue? (40%)
3. What changes in the organisational structure and management systems of the Virgin Group would you recommend? (30%) PowerPoint presentation

This case study is based on Case 20: The Virgin Group in 2015 in the book in Robert M. Grant’s book Contemporary Strategy Analysis. The case study touches on competitive strategy and innovation, strategic management. 

The sample solution is presented in a PowerPoint Presentation with speaker notes (at the bottom of each slide).  

Contents

  • Introduction
  • Resources and capabilities
  • Virgin companies shared resources and capabilities
  • Divesting criteria and businesses to divest
  • New diversification strategy and decision criteria
  • Organisational structure change recommendations
  • Management systems change recommendations

Richard Branson and the Virgin Group Case Study

Introduction

The Virgin Group was established by renowned entrepreneur, Richard Branson. The history of the group can be traced back to 1968 when Branson formed the Student magazine after dropping out of school. Over the years, The Virgin Group has grown to become a highly diversified organisation with operations in several industry segments and countries. The group so far operates in the UK, the United States, Australia, Russia, South Africa, and Canada among several others.  Some of the areas the group mainly focuses on are Telecoms and Media, Music and Entertainment, Financial Services, Travel and Leisure, and Health & Wellness (Virgin Group 2017).

The Group boasts of owning hundreds of companies directly or through its subsidiaries. It also boasts of having holding companies in seven main business categories. In addition, it has a stake in several companies, such stake acquired through the formation of joint ventures with other corporations.

Virgin Group has a strong asset base and its success has partly been attributed to the reputation and celebrity status of its founder, Richard Branson. Some of the Group’s notable assets include its fleets of airplanes, trains, and megastores. In addition to these, it has several resources including a strong brand name, a good reputation, talented human resources, and finances. In combination, these resources have helped the group develop capabilities and competencies in different areas.

One of the resources shared by the Virgin companies is the Virgin brand…

Continue reading

Harley Davidson Resources Capabilities

This article attempts to answer the following questions:

Q1. What are the resources and capabilities of Harley-Davidson? And how do they grant the firm competitive advantage to compete in the motorcycle industry? -Harley-Davidson Resources Capabilities
Q2/ How effectively Harley Davidson’s strategy is implemented and how the firm exploit its key strengths while protecting itself from its key weaknesses?
Q3. What threats to its continuing success does Harley Davidson face, and how should it respond to current & future challenges?

Case study source: Robert M. Grant.  Contemporary Strategy Analysis.
Preview:

Harley Davidson’s Resources, Capabilities, Strategy and Threats

Resources have been defined as inputs into the production process (Grant, 1991) and as the productive assets owned by the firm (Grant, 2016). Based on these definitions, resources are basically what the firm has and that it can use to create value. Resources can be tangible, intangible, or human as noted by Grant (2016). Tangible resources are resources that can be touched, such as financial resources (like cash, securities, and borrowing capacity) and physical items (like land, plant, equipment and mineral reserves). Intangible resources are resources that cannot be touched and include such things as reputation (brand and relationships), position, technology (such as patents and copyrights) and culture. Human resources include skills or know-how and productive effort offered by the firm’s employees (Grant, 2016). It also includes motivation and capacity for communication. It is worth noting that the firm does not own its workers but it purchases their services through employment contracts. On their own, or in combination with other resources to form capabilities, resources can be sources of competitive advantage (Edwards, 2014).

An analysis of the internal environment of Harley-Davidson reveals that the firm has numerous resources. One of the resources the company has is its brand. In this regard, Harley-Davidson has a good reputation which has greatly contributed to its success in the market (Grant, 2016) … continue

According to Grant (2016), strategy is concerned with matching company’s resources and capabilities to the opportunities that emerge in the external environment. While in agreement with this notion, David (2011) notes that although a strategy can be good or effective, its implementation can be poor or ineffective. Harley-Davidson sought to achieve competitive advantage and higher sales by developing and implementing several strategies. One of Harley’s key strategies was that it sold a unique Harley-Davidson experience rather than motorcycles (Grant, 2016). … continue

Based on Porter’s five forces model, factors such as bargaining power of supplies, bargaining power of buyers, threat of substitutes, and the threat of new entrants can threaten the success and profitability of a business (Mille, et al. 2011; Porter, 2017). Harley faces the threat of new entrants such as witnessed in the entry of Excelsior, Polaris (Victory), and Indian into the motorcycles market. These and other new entrants have the potential to eat into Harley’s market share in different markets, thereby reducing the company’s sales and profitability. … continue

Harley Davidson Resources Capabilities

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